How to format your references using the Phytomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytomedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffmann, J.A., 2003. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature 426, 33–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levy-Lahad, E., Plon, S.E., 2003. Cancer. A risky business--assessing breast cancer risk. Science 302, 574–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ridgwell, A.J., Kennedy, M.J., Caldeira, K., 2003. Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and Neoproterozoic ice ages. Science 302, 859–862.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rinaldi, S., Maioli, M., Pigliaru, G., Castagna, A., Santaniello, S., Basoli, V., Fontani, V., Ventura, C., 2014. Stem cell senescence. Effects of REAC technology on telomerase-independent and telomerase-dependent pathways. Sci. Rep. 4, 6373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossetti, N., 2005. Managing Power Electronics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yamaguchi, T. (Ed.), 2008. Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management: 7th International Conference, PAKM 2008, Yokohama, Japan, November 22-23, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bunimovich, L., Webb, B., 2014. Improved Eigenvalue Estimates, in: Webb, B. (Ed.), Isospectral Transformations: A New Approach to Analyzing Multidimensional Systems and Networks, Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 91–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytomedicine.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Starbucks To Trial Recyclable Coffee Cups In The UK [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Railroad Regulation: Shipper Experiences and Current Issues in ICC Regulation of Rail Rates (No. RCED-87-119). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nash, M.C., 2017. Reading Achievement: A Study of Perceptions of First-Grade Teachers and the Relationship Between Attendance and Reading Achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Norris, M., 2010. FROM BROTHER TO SISTER. New York Times MM66.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffmann, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffmann, 2003; Levy-Lahad and Plon, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levy-Lahad and Plon, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Rinaldi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytomedicine
ISSN (print)0944-7113
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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