How to format your references using the Phytomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytomedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, B.R., 2011. WHO needs change. Nature 473, 143–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pryke, S.R., Griffith, S.C., 2009. Genetic incompatibility drives sex allocation and maternal investment in a polymorphic finch. Science 323, 1605–1607.
A journal article with 3 authors
Savaldi-Goldstein, S., Peto, C., Chory, J., 2007. The epidermis both drives and restricts plant shoot growth. Nature 446, 199–202.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Im, K.-S., Cheong, S.-K., Powell, C.F., Lai, M.-C.D., Wang, J., 2013. Unraveling the geometry dependence of in-nozzle cavitation in high-pressure injectors. Sci. Rep. 3, 2067.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monks, R.A.G., Reed Lajoux, A., LeBaron, D., 2010. Corporate Valuation for Portfolio Investment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gergely, T., 2010. Cognitive Reasoning: A Formal Approach, Cognitive Technologies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Séguy, I., Buchet, L., 2013. Establishing a Reference Population, in: Buchet, L. (Ed.), Handbook of Palaeodemography, INED Population Studies. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytomedicine.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. First Quantum Coherence In Biological Molecule [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Tulare County Serving Rural-Migrant Children (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham, H.H., 2010. Leadership as co-influencing: A heuristic narrative study of dynamic co-emergence within the leadership relationship (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2003. Staying Focused On Diversity Goals In Harder Times. New York Times G2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bloom, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom, 2011; Pryke and Griffith, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pryke and Griffith, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Im et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytomedicine
ISSN (print)0944-7113
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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