How to format your references using the Phytomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytomedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venkatraman, V., 2015. Working life. The space roboticist. Science 349, 338.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bennett, C.H., DiVincenzo, D.P., 2000. Quantum information and computation. Nature 404, 247–255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verma, T., Araújo, N.A.M., Herrmann, H.J., 2014. Revealing the structure of the world airline network. Sci. Rep. 4, 5638.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Poelwijk, F.J., Kiviet, D.J., Weinreich, D.M., Tans, S.J., 2007. Empirical fitness landscapes reveal accessible evolutionary paths. Nature 445, 383–386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mcphee, J.E., 2014. Mastering Strategic Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sigalotti, L.D.G., Klapp, J., Sira, E. (Eds.), 2014. Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Physics, Engineering and the Environment, Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Salomaa, R., 2014. Coaching of Key Talents in Multinational Companies, in: Al Ariss, A. (Ed.), Global Talent Management: Challenges, Strategies, and Opportunities, Management for Professionals. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 43–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytomedicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why Is It So Cold In Here? Setting The Office Thermostat Right – For Both Sexes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comments on the Proposed Cyber Security Information Act of 2000 (No. T-AIMD-00-229). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaghdoun, E., 2009. Entre lettres et portraits: Madame Du Deffand, auteur? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Catch of the Year So Far. No Ball Involved. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Venkatraman, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bennett and DiVincenzo, 2000; Venkatraman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bennett and DiVincenzo, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Poelwijk et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytomedicine
ISSN (print)0944-7113
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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