How to format your references using the Phytomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytomedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G., 2003. Physicists doubt that “corking” could help baseball’s big hitter. Nature 423, 674.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieseberg, L.H., Livingstone, K., 2003. Evolution. Chromosomal speciation in primates. Science 300, 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarchini, B., Duboule, D., Kmita, M., 2006. Regulatory constraints in the evolution of the tetrapod limb anterior-posterior polarity. Nature 443, 985–988.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
West, J., Beck, S., Wang, X., Teschendorff, A.E., 2013. An integrative network algorithm identifies age-associated differential methylation interactome hotspots targeting stem-cell differentiation pathways. Sci. Rep. 3, 1630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monino, J.-L., Sedkaoui, S., 2016. Big Data, Open Data and Data Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lee, R., Hu, G., Miao, H. (Eds.), 2009. Computer and Information Science 2009, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobolev, D., 2016. The Trauma of Modernism: Between Existential Indeterminacy and Allegoresis, in: Ataria, Y., Gurevitz, D., Pedaya, H., Neria, Y. (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Handbook of Trauma and Culture. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 67–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytomedicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Incredibly Rare Double Eclipse Of The Sun By Earth And The Moon Snapped By Spacecraft [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Sanitary Conditions in Selected Food Industries (No. 107042). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richard, K., 2017. College Programs in Women’s Prisons: Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Higher Education Behind Bars (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M., 2017. Does a Building’s Age Affect the Rent? New York Times RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2003; Rieseberg and Livingstone, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rieseberg and Livingstone, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (West et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytomedicine
ISSN (print)0944-7113
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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