How to format your references using the Physics of the Dark Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics of the Dark Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Reichstein, Journal club. A biogeochemist looks at where all the emitted carbon dioxide is going, Nature. 464 (2010) 145.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.G. Smock, L.M. Gierasch, Sending signals dynamically, Science. 324 (2009) 198–203.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Akbarzadeh, C.-W. Qiu, A.J. Danner, Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2055.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Horii, Y. Arai, M. Yamazaki, S. Morita, M. Kimura, M. Itoh, Y. Abe, I. Hatada, Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Doerfler, Foreign DNA in Mammalian Systems, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 2007.
An edited book
J. Zschocke, K.M. Gibson, G. Brown, E. Morava, V. Peters, eds., JIMD Reports - Case and Research Reports, 2012/5, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M.C.D.M. Carambas, Economic Analysis of Eco-Labeling: The Case of Labeled Organic Rice in Thailand, in: U. Grote, A.K. Basu, N.H. Chau (Eds.), New Frontiers in Environmental and Social Labeling, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 83–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics of the Dark Universe.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Men More Reluctant To Go To The Doctor – And It’s Putting Them At Risk, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of Selected Aspects of the Bilingual Education Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.A. Graves, An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Johnson, A Subatomic Existential Crisis, New York Times. (2015) D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics of the Dark Universe
ISSN (print)2212-6864
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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