How to format your references using the Physics of the Dark Universe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics of the Dark Universe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Costandi, Rehabilitation: machine recovery, Nature. 510 (2014) S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Henikoff, H.S. Malik, Centromeres: selfish drivers, Nature. 417 (2002) 227.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.-Y. Lee, C.Y. Tang, F. Huo, Fabrication of porous matrix membrane (PMM) using metal-organic framework as green template for water treatment, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3740.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Politi, T. Arad, E. Klein, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, Sea urchin spine calcite forms via a transient amorphous calcium carbonate phase, Science. 306 (2004) 1161–1164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.T. Dao, M.-C. Ho Ba Tho, Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
M. Pokorski, ed., Environmental Biomedicine, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A.A. Núñez, D.A. Sáez, C.E. Cortés, Conclusions, in: D.A. Sáez, C.E. Cortés (Eds.), Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems, Springer, London, 2013: pp. 127–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics of the Dark Universe.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Wasp Masters Turn Spiders Into Web-Building Zombie Slaves, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Effort to Modernize the System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V.R. Goldner, Arizona nurses’ attitudes toward legislated minimum staffing ratios: Impact on the workplace, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Lee, A Clean Desk, At Least For Starters, New York Times. (2008) F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics of the Dark Universe
ISSN (print)2212-6864
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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