How to format your references using the Physica Scripta citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica Scripta. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macneil J S 2000 ECOLOGY: Forest Fire Plan Kindles Debate Science 289 1448b–9b
A journal article with 2 authors
Jia C L and Urban K 2004 Atomic-resolution measurement of oxygen concentration in oxide materials Science 303 2001–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiong Q, Mukherjee S and Furey T S 2014 GSAASeqSP: a toolset for gene set association analysis of RNA-Seq data Sci. Rep. 4 6347
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Simpson S W, Quade J, Levin N E, Butler R, Dupont-Nivet G, Everett M and Semaw S 2008 A female Homo erectus pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia Science 322 1089–92

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazer A 2011 Shifting the Earth (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Becker J and Delfmann P 2007 Reference Modeling: Efficient Information Systems Design Through Reuse of Information Models (Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD)
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang H W, Yablonovitch E, Xiao M, Sakr M, Scott G and Croke E T 2009 Single-Electron-Spin Measurements in Si-Based Semiconductor Nanostructures Electron Spin Resonance and Related Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Structures Topics in Applied Physics ed M Fanciulli (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 81–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica Scripta.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 What’s The Healthiest Position To Sleep In? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002 Marine Transportation: Federal Financing and an Infrastructure Investment Framework (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winer E J 2010 Elementary School Consolidation and Reconfiguration: An Autoethnographic Case Study Doctoral dissertation (Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J 2017 Questions Add to Drumbeat of Mets Injuries New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica Scripta
AbbreviationPhys. Scr.
ISSN (print)0031-8949
ISSN (online)1402-4896
ScopeMathematical Physics
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles