How to format your references using the Physica Scripta citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica Scripta. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe M 2003 Going multidisciplinary Nature 425 542–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Boolchand P and Bresser W J 2001 Mobile silver ions and glass formation in solid electrolytes Nature 410 1070–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Childers S E, Ciufo S and Lovley D R 2002 Geobacter metallireducens accesses insoluble Fe(III) oxide by chemotaxis Nature 416 767–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Yamamoto K, Sakata Y, Nohara Y, Takahashi Y and Tatsumi T 2003 Organic-inorganic hybrid zeolites containing organic frameworks Science 300 470–2

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore L A 2003 Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Dias M, Eick C J and Brantley-Dias L 2014 Science Teacher Educators as K-12 Teachers: Practicing what we teach vol 1 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Da Silva-Grigoletto M E and Heredia Elvar J R 2016 Conceptual and Terminological Foundations for the Sciences of Physical Exercise: New Perspectives Exercise and Human Reproduction: Induced Fertility Disorders and Possible Therapies ed D Vaamonde, S S du Plessis and A Agarwal (New York, NY: Springer) pp 69–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica Scripta.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Shortlist Finalists Have Been Announced for Sony World Photography Awards IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 NOAA Satellites (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer K A 2010 System for Identifying Plankton from the SIPPER Instrument Platform Doctoral dissertation (Tampa, FL: University of South Florida)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S 2003 Yevgeny Kolobov, 57; Founded an Opera Theater New York Times A25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica Scripta
AbbreviationPhys. Scr.
ISSN (print)0031-8949
ISSN (online)1402-4896
ScopeMathematical Physics
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles