How to format your references using the Physica Scripta citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica Scripta. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P 2015 Carl Djerassi (1923-2015) Nature 519 34
A journal article with 2 authors
MacCoss M and Baillie T A 2004 Organic chemistry in drug discovery Science 303 1810–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Kassen R, Llewellyn M and Rainey P B 2004 Ecological constraints on diversification in a model adaptive radiation Nature 431 984–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Nedimović M R, Carbotte S M, Harding A J, Detrick R S, Canales J P, Diebold J B, Kent G M, Tischer M and Babcock J M 2005 Frozen magma lenses below the oceanic crust Nature 436 1149–52

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret D 2012 Flexray and its Applications (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Ganesh S G 2016 Oracle Certified Professional Java SE 8 Programmer Exam 1Z0-809: Comprehensive OCPJP 8 Certification Guide ed H Kiran and T Sharma (Berkeley, CA: Apress)
A chapter in an edited book
Mishkin D and Matas J 2014 Matching of Images of Non-planar Objects with View Synthesis SOFSEM 2014: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: 40th International Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Nový Smokovec, Slovakia, January 26-29, 2014, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed V Geffert, B Preneel, B Rovan, J Štuller and A M Tjoa (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 30–9

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica Scripta.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Sexist Peer Reviewer Suggests Study Needs Male Authors IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2006 Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Government in Early Stages of Transition and Key Challenges Remain (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios J 2015 Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J 2017 A Central Park Road, High and Unwinding, Worries a Path’s Fans New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica Scripta
AbbreviationPhys. Scr.
ISSN (print)0031-8949
ISSN (online)1402-4896
ScopeMathematical Physics
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles