How to format your references using the Physica Scripta citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica Scripta. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Noorden R 2012 Production: Beyond sticky tape Nature 483 S32-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Birney E and Soranzo N 2015 Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing Nature 526 52–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu T, Satoh T and Kato K 2014 Structural insight into substrate recognition by the endoplasmic reticulum folding-sensor enzyme: crystal structure of third thioredoxin-like domain of UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase Sci. Rep. 4 7322
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Wilson D, Aster R, West M, Ni J, Grand S, Gao W, Baldridge W S, Semken S and Patel P 2005 Lithospheric structure of the Rio Grande rift Nature 433 851–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath A E 2011 Luther’s Theology of the Cross (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell)
An edited book
Goel A K, Jamnik M and Narayanan N H 2010 Diagrammatic Representation and Inference: 6th International Conference, Diagrams 2010, Portland, OR, USA, August 9-11, 2010. Proceedings vol 6170 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Novak J M, Armstrong D E and Browne B 2014 Managing and Mentoring your Educational Self Leading For Educational Lives: Inviting and Sustaining Imaginative Acts of Hope in a Connected World ed D E Armstrong and B Browne (Rotterdam: SensePublishers) pp 53–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica Scripta.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 After The Supermoon, Comes The Supertide IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2008 Aviation Safety: FAA Has Increased Efforts to Address Runway Incursions (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bagley C R 2010 Pint-sized spectacles: American youth beauty queens and the power(ful) dynamic of the institutionalized pageant Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casselman B 2017 Wealth Grew Broadly Over 3 Years, but Inequality Also Widened New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica Scripta
AbbreviationPhys. Scr.
ISSN (print)0031-8949
ISSN (online)1402-4896
ScopeMathematical Physics
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles