How to format your references using the PharmaNutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmaNutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.E. Peters, Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record, Nature. 454 (2008) 626–629.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Fine, D. Tchernov, Scleractinian coral species survive and recover from decalcification, Science. 315 (2007) 1811.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.-S. Hwang, A. Shemorry, A. Varshavsky, N-terminal acetylation of cellular proteins creates specific degradation signals, Science. 327 (2010) 973–977.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Duan, T. Kim, L. Han, J. Ma, X. Du, W. Zheng, Formation of alumina nanocapsules by high-energy-electron irradiation of Na-dawsonite nanorods, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3218.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.R. Rosenberger, Risk-Adjusted Lending Conditions, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
S. Colonna, I cibi della salute: Le basi chimiche di una corretta alimentazione, Springer, Milano, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Adaricheva, J.B. Nation, Convex Geometries, in: G. Grätzer, F. Wehrung (Eds.), Lattice Theory: Special Topics and Applications: Volume 2, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 153–179.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmaNutrition.

Blog post
T. Hale, Fearful European Zoos To Cut Off Their Rhinos’ Horns After Paris Poaching Attack, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tax System Modernization: Management Mistakes Caused Delays in Automated Underreporter System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Jennings, Hiring, promotions, and identity negotiation of female hiring agents in American corporate retail, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Timur, R. Nordland, Angry at European Action, Turkey Threatens to Let Migrant Flood Resume, New York Times. (2016) A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaNutrition
ISSN (print)2213-4344
ScopeFood Science
Pharmacology (medical)

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