How to format your references using the PharmaNutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmaNutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, World Bank is urged to give greater priority to science, Nature. 407 (2000) 276.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.G. Van de Walle, J. Neugebauer, Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions, Nature. 423 (2003) 626–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.S. Kamat, H.J. Williams, F.M. Raushel, Intermediates in the transformation of phosphonates to phosphate by bacteria, Nature. 480 (2011) 570–573.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.W. Partin, K.M. Cobb, J.F. Adkins, B. Clark, D.P. Fernandez, Millennial-scale trends in west Pacific warm pool hydrology since the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature. 449 (2007) 452–455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Andersson, D. Freeman, I. James, A. Johnston, S. Ljung, Mobile Media and Applications - From Concept to Cash, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
N. Orlovskaya, M. Lugovy, eds., Boron Rich Solids: Sensors, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics, Armor, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
G.F. Backhaus, Regulatory Aspects in Chemical Control of Fungal Diseases: Impact on Efficient Plant Production, in: U. Gisi, I. Chet, M.L. Gullino (Eds.), Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmaNutrition.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Two-Headed Cobra Found In China, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Weather Forecasting: National Weather Service Is Planning to Improve Service and Gain Efficiency, but Impacts of Potential Changes Are Not Yet Known, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Baghdadi, A comparison of gender representation in English (EFL) and Arabic (AFL) textbooks in Iran: A critical discourse analysis, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Mets’ Leadoff Hitter Technically Is Not Missing, but His Bat Has Vanished, New York Times. (2017) SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmaNutrition
ISSN (print)2213-4344
ScopeFood Science
Pharmacology (medical)

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