How to format your references using the Perspectives on Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dagotto E. Complexity in strongly correlated electronic systems. Science. 2005;309:257–62.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Erdélyi R, Fedun V. Are there Alfvén waves in the solar atmosphere? Science. 2007;318:1572–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bánsági T Jr, Vanag VK, Epstein IR. Tomography of reaction-diffusion microemulsions reveals three-dimensional Turing patterns. Science. 2011;331:1309–12.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sun S, Li F, Liu F, Wang J, Peng X. Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3570.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Riegel M, Kroeselberg D, Chindapol A, Premec D. Deploying Mobile WiMAX. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Albert LA, Voogt P de, Gerba CP, Hutzinger O, Knaak JB, Mayer FL, et al., editors. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: Continuation of Residue Reviews. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mak P-I, Martins RP. A Mixed-Voltage Unified Receiver Front-End for Full-Band Mobile TV in 65-nm CMOS. In: Martins RP, editor. High-/Mixed-Voltage Analog and RF Circuit Techniques for Nanoscale CMOS. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 81–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Medical Education.

Blog post
1. Hale T. These Five Optical Illusions Will Make You Doubt Your Own Eyes. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Government: Overtime Costs Exceed Those of Neighboring Governments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: GGD-97-159BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hertzman R. Yemen’s migrant networks as critical factor in political opposition to the Imamate [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. Crowd Lifts Frenchwoman. Now, Who Will Hoist a First Major Trophy? New York Times. 2017 Jun 4;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Medical Education
AbbreviationPerspect. Med. Educ.
ISSN (print)2212-2761
ISSN (online)2212-277X

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