How to format your references using the Perspectives on Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Grayson M. Bees. Nature. 2015;521:S47.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Beatson SA, Walker MJ. Microbiology. Tracking antibiotic resistance. Science. 2014;345:1454–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tzfira T, Vaidya M, Citovsky V. Involvement of targeted proteolysis in plant genetic transformation by Agrobacterium. Nature. 2004;431:87–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sriraman S, Agarwal S, Aydil ES, Maroudas D. Mechanism of hydrogen-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon. Nature. 2002;418:62–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. DiBerardinis LJ, Baum JS, First MW, Gatwood GT, Seth AK. Guidelines for Laboratory Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Bacon D, Martin-Delgado M, Roetteler M, editors. Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication, and Cryptography: 6th Conference, TQC 2011, Madrid, Spain, May 24-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Vieten UM. ‘When I Land in Islamabad I Feel Home and When I Land in Heathrow I Feel Home.’ In: Tsolidis G, editor. Migration, Diaspora and Identity: Cross-National Experiences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 51–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Medical Education.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Scientists Measure Rare Black Hole 400x The Size Of Our Sun [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/scientists-measure-rare-black-hole-400x-size-our-sun/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Can Better Forecast and Prevent Equipment Failures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Aug. Report No.: RCED-91-179.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Goldberg DS. Poly (amido amine) dendrimers: Transepithelial transport mechanisms and applications in oral drug delivery [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. All Dollars, All the Time For Harried School Boards. New York Times. 2005 Dec 4;14LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Medical Education
AbbreviationPerspect. Med. Educ.
ISSN (print)2212-2761
ISSN (online)2212-277X
Scope

Other styles