How to format your references using the Perspectives on Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Medical Education (Perspect Med Educ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Alley RB. Climate change. On thickening ice? Science. 2002;295:451–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kovács IA, Barabási A-L. Network science: Destruction perfected. Nature. 2015;524:38–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fotso H, Mikelsons K, Freericks JK. Thermalization of field driven quantum systems. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4699.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ming L, Jin F, Huang P, Luo H, Liu W, Zhang L, et al. Licochalcone A up-regulates of FasL in mesenchymal stem cells to strengthen bone formation and increase bone mass. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gaffikin F, Morrissey M. Planning in Divided Cities: Collaborative Shaping of Contested Space. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Jeremic B, Pitz S, editors. Primary Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Oelfke U, Nill S, Wilkens JJ. Physical Optimization. In: Bortfeld T, Schmidt-Ullrich R, Neve WD, Wazer DE, editors. Image-Guided IMRT. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 31–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Medical Education.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Thousands Of People Have Been Evacuated In Canada After City-Sized Wildfires Spread Out Of Control [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/city-sized-alberta-wildfires-driven-climate-change-and-powerful-el-ni-o/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Lunch Program: Evaluation of Alternatives to Commodity Donations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Jun. Report No.: RCED-87-113.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zhu H. Outcomes of China Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program, 2003–2010 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Fausset R, Robles F, Eligon J. Online Footprint Builds Portrait of Gunman’s Life. New York Times. 2016 Jul 18;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Medical Education
AbbreviationPerspect. Med. Educ.
ISSN (print)2212-2761
ISSN (online)2212-277X
Scope

Other styles