How to format your references using the Perspectives on Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wakeham B. UK physics gets a health check. Nature. 2008;455:592.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Groves JT, Boaz NC. Biochemistry. Fishing for peroxidase protons. Science. 2014;345:142–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Duthie C, Gibbs G, Burns KC. Seed dispersal by weta. Science. 2006;311:1575.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zheng Q, Jiao N, Zhang R, Chen F, Suttle CA. Prevalence of psbA-containing cyanobacterial podoviruses in the ocean. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Goodman AH. Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Kumari V, Bob P, Boutros NN, editors. Electrophysiology and Psychophysiology in Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Crabtree A, Rouncefield M, Tolmie P. Dispensing with Method. In: Rouncefield M, Tolmie P, editors. Doing Design Ethnography. London: Springer; 2012. p. 67–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Medical Education.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. One Of Earth’s Closest Failed Stars May Actually Be A Rogue Planet [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Should Provide the Congress with More Information on the Pioneer Venus Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Nov. Report No.: PSAD-77-65.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kong W. The Role of MicroRNA-155 in Human Breast Cancer [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Karr M. JAN. 15, 2006: Thanks for The Memoirs. New York Times. 2010 Sep 26;F15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Medical Education
AbbreviationPerspect. Med. Educ.
ISSN (print)2212-2761
ISSN (online)2212-277X

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