How to format your references using the Perspectives on Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Baker VR. Earth sciences. The study of superfloods. Science. 2002;295:2379–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Susiarjo M, Bartolomei MS. Epigenetics. You are what you eat, but what about your DNA? Science. 2014;345:733–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gadsby DC, Vergani P, Csanády L. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis. Nature. 2006;440:477–83.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Povich MS, Raymond JC, Jones GH, Uzzo M, Ko Y-K, Feldman PD, et al. Doubly ionized carbon observed in the plasma tail of comet Kudo-Fujikawa. Science. 2003;302:1949–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bech S, Zacharov N. Perceptual Audio Evaluation-Theory, Method and Application. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Breitman K, Cavalcanti A, editors. Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 11th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods ICFEM 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 9-12, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rai A. The Possibility of Satire: Reading Pratap Narain Misra’s Brāhmaṇ, 1883–1890. In: Harder H, Mittler B, editors. Asian Punches: A Transcultural Affair. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Medical Education.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Teenage Girl Had To Stay Awake For Four Days After Parasite Started Eating Her Eyeball. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Export Controls: NASA Management Action and Improved Oversight Needed to Reduce the Risk of Unauthorized Access to Its Technologies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-690T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Batistick SA. Reclaiming One’s Gold: Imagining the Inner Child Through the Art of Therapeutic Fairy Tale Writing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. Endless Options in a Wrap. New York Times. 2006 Nov 11;NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Medical Education
AbbreviationPerspect. Med. Educ.
ISSN (print)2212-2761
ISSN (online)2212-277X
Scope

Other styles