How to format your references using the Perspectives on Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hecht SS. Perspective: Tackling the real issues. Nature. 2011;471:S18.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sanguinetti MC, Tristani-Firouzi M. hERG potassium channels and cardiac arrhythmia. Nature. 2006;440:463–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gitlin L, Karelsky S, Andino R. Short interfering RNA confers intracellular antiviral immunity in human cells. Nature. 2002;418:430–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hafez IH, Berber MR, Fujigaya T, Nakashima N. Enhancement of platinum mass activity on the surface of polymer-wrapped carbon nanotube-based fuel cell electrocatalysts. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bhalla S, Moharana S, Talakokula V, Kaur N. Piezoelectric Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Botana F, Quaresma P, editors. Automated Deduction in Geometry: 10th International Workshop, ADG 2014, Coimbra, Portugal, July 9-11, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Teng TT, Low LW. Removal of Dyes and Pigments from Industrial Effluents. In: Sharma SK, Sanghi R, editors. Advances in Water Treatment and Pollution Prevention. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 65–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Medical Education.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Cycloid Optical Illusion Will Boggle Your Mind. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving Yet Avoiding Disruption of Critical Services Will Require Additional Work. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jul. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-233.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Saurage-Altenloh SM. The Measured Influence of Supplier CSR on Brand Performance Expectations in B2B Relationships [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. New Life Emerges From the ‘Big Bang.’ New York Times. 2017 Aug 31;AR114.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Medical Education
AbbreviationPerspect. Med. Educ.
ISSN (print)2212-2761
ISSN (online)2212-277X
Scope

Other styles