How to format your references using the Pediatric Annals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Annals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weaver RL. Geophysics. Information from seismic noise. Science. 2005;307(5715):1568-1569.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elowitz MB, Leibler S. A synthetic oscillatory network of transcriptional regulators. Nature. 2000;403(6767):335-338.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biastoch A, Böning CW, Lutjeharms JRE. Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature. 2008;456(7221):489-492.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
McClintock WE, Vervack RJ Jr, Bradley ET, et al. MESSENGER observations of Mercury’s exosphere: detection of magnesium and distribution of constituents. Science. 2009;324(5927):610-613.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane L. Knowledge and Discourse Matters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Kulnieks A, Longboat DR, Young K, eds. Contemporary Studies in Environmental and Indigenous Pedagogies: A Curricula of Stories and Place. SensePublishers; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Shear J. Converging on the Self: Western Philosophy, Eastern Meditation and Scientific Research. In: Menon S, Sinha A, Sreekantan BV, eds. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Consciousness and the Self. Springer India; 2014:41-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Annals.

Blog post
Andrew E. Drones To Be Employed in Kenyan Anti-Poaching Effort. IFLScience. Published March 26, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anemaet WK. The Effects of Non -Surgical Interventions on Osteoarthritis-like Changes in the Mouse Knee. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. The Roberts Court Takes On Abortion. New York Times. November 5, 2006:WK14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Annals
AbbreviationPediatr. Ann.
ISSN (print)0090-4481
ISSN (online)1938-2359
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles