How to format your references using the Pediatric Annals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Annals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Becker T. Geophysics. Fine-scale modeling of global plate tectonics. Science. 2010;329(5995):1020-1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Keefe FR, Chiappe LM. Viviparity and K-selected life history in a Mesozoic marine plesiosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia). Science. 2011;333(6044):870-873.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karsai M, Perra N, Vespignani A. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4001.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Anandakrishnan S, Catania GA, Alley RB, Horgan HJ. Discovery of till deposition at the grounding line of Whillans Ice Stream. Science. 2007;315(5820):1835-1838.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bamfield P. Research and Development in the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Bavry AA. Indications and Techniques of Percutaneous Procedures: Coronary, Peripheral, and Structural Heart Disease. (Kumbhani DJ, ed.). Springer Healthcare Ltd.; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Jones CW, Penzkover D, Pollard R, Kuhlmann RS. First-Trimester Embryology: An Overview. In: Abramowicz JS, ed. First-Trimester Ultrasound: A Comprehensive Guide. Springer International Publishing; 2016:59-76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Annals.

Blog post
Luntz S. Lightning Archaeology Measures Bolts’ Power. IFLScience. Published August 11, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Central Artery/Tunnel Project Faces Financial Uncertainties. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrie DB. On the interaction of wind energy with climate and weather. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Fish Are Running, Not the Meter. New York Times. April 20, 2003:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Annals
AbbreviationPediatr. Ann.
ISSN (print)0090-4481
ISSN (online)1938-2359
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles