How to format your references using the Pediatric Annals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Annals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Motavalli J. Technology: A solid future. Nature. 2015;526(7575):S96-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
McNiven MA, Thompson HM. Vesicle formation at the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network: the same but different. Science. 2006;313(5793):1591-1594.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Den Brink GR, de Santa Barbara P, Roberts DJ. Development. Epithelial cell differentiation--a Mather of choice. Science. 2001;294(5549):2115-2116.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Juengst ET, Binstock RH, Mehlman MJ, Post SG. Aging. Antiaging research and the need for public dialogue. Science. 2003;299(5611):1323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Renaud B, Kim K-H, Cho M. Dynamics of Housing in East Asia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Munoz-Garcia F. Strategy and Game Theory: Practice Exercises with Answers. (Toro-Gonzalez D, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bunkowski L, Hedstrom A. Violent Environment: Women and Frontier Coffey County, Kansas: 1855–1880. In: Farris DN, Davis MA, Compton DR, eds. Illuminating How Identities, Stereotypes and Inequalities Matter through Gender Studies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014:55-69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Annals.

Blog post
Davis J. Palm Oil Might Not Kill You, But It Is Killing The Environment. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System Faces Significant Implementation Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sonn AC. Institutions’ needs and donors’ dreams: A case study of successful student affairs fundraising collaboration at three private research universities. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Bankruptcy In California Is Not Seen As a Trend. New York Times. July 13, 2012:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Annals
AbbreviationPediatr. Ann.
ISSN (print)0090-4481
ISSN (online)1938-2359
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles