How to format your references using the Pastoral Care in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoral Care in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingerich, O. (2010). Brian Marsden (1937-2010). Nature, 468(7327), 1042.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneggenburger, R., & Neher, E. (2000). Intracellular calcium dependence of transmitter release rates at a fast central synapse. Nature, 406(6798), 889–893.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mallatt, J., Chen, J., & Holland, N. D. (2003). Comment on “A new species of yunnanozoan with implications for deuterostome evolution.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5624), 1372; author reply 1372.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xiao, Y., Patolsky, F., Katz, E., Hainfeld, J. F., & Willner, I. (2003). “Plugging into Enzymes”: nanowiring of redox enzymes by a gold nanoparticle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5614), 1877–1881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodda, H. J. E., & Little, M. A. (2015). Understanding Mathematical and Statistical Techniques in Hydrology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Braimoh, A. K., & Vlek, P. L. G. (Eds.). (2008). Land Use and Soil Resources. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Richards, H., & Swanger, J. (2009). Culture Change: A Practical Method with a Theoretical Basis. In J. de Rivera (Ed.), Handbook on Building Cultures of Peace (pp. 57–70). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoral Care in Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, June 28). Newly Formulated Liquid Aspirin Claimed To Be Able To Pass Through Blood-Brain Barrier. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Review of Selected Projects Under the Bilingual Education Program (B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Othmanawny, G. (2017). Soaked and Unsoaked Performance of Crushed Gravel and Limestone Aggregates [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2008, August 24). A Produce Auction With an Eye to Survival. New York Times, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gingerich, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gingerich, 2010; Schneggenburger & Neher, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schneggenburger & Neher, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Mallatt et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xiao et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoral Care in Education
AbbreviationPastor. Care Educ.
ISSN (print)0264-3944
ISSN (online)1468-0122
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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