How to format your references using the Pastoral Care in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoral Care in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P. (2005). PCR: replicating success. Nature, 435(7039), 235–238.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knust, E., & Bossinger, O. (2002). Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5600), 1955–1959.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruskotter, J. T., Enzler, S. A., & Treves, A. (2011). Science and law. Rescuing wolves from politics: wildlife as a public trust resource. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6051), 1828–1829.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Del Negro, C., Currenti, G., Solaro, G., Greco, F., Pepe, A., Napoli, R., Pepe, S., Casu, F., & Sansosti, E. (2013). Capturing the fingerprint of Etna volcano activity in gravity and satellite radar data. Scientific Reports, 3, 3089.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, S.-L. (2012). Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Spink, A., & Cole, C. (Eds.). (2005). New Directions in Cognitive Information Retrieval (Vol. 19). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez, G., & Blanco, G. (2016). Na, K-ATPase α4: An Isoform Dedicated to Sperm Function. In S. Chakraborti & N. S. Dhalla (Eds.), Regulation of Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase (pp. 77–92). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoral Care in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 26). Five Reasons Why Cutting NASA’s Climate Research Would Be A Colossal Mistake. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Important Progress Made, But Much Work Remains to Avoid Disruption of Critical Services (T-AIMD-99-267). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thiagarajan, T. T. (2017). A Simple and Effective Peak-To-Average Power Ratio Reduction Approach Based on Iterative Companding Transform and Filtering Framework of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, March 13). The Champions In Verse, And With Ghosts. New York Times, SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Knust & Bossinger, 2002; Moore, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knust & Bossinger, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bruskotter et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Del Negro et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoral Care in Education
AbbreviationPastor. Care Educ.
ISSN (print)0264-3944
ISSN (online)1468-0122
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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