How to format your references using the Pastoral Care in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pastoral Care in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smetacek, V. (2001). A watery arms race. Nature, 411(6839), 745.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zatorre, R. J., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2002). Neuroscience. Mental models and musical minds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2138–2139.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royle, N. J., Hartley, I. R., & Parker, G. A. (2002). Sexual conflict reduces offspring fitness in zebra finches. Nature, 416(6882), 733–736.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Martinowich, K., Hattori, D., Wu, H., Fouse, S., He, F., Hu, Y., Fan, G., & Sun, Y. E. (2003). DNA methylation-related chromatin remodeling in activity-dependent BDNF gene regulation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5646), 890–893.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hites, R. A., & Raff, J. D. (2012). Elements of Environmental Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kwak, D. (2011). Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows (C. C. Kiris, Ed.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Demetriades, A. K., Ringel, F., & Meyer, B. (2014). Cervical Disc Arthroplasty: A Critical Review and Appraisal of the Latest Available Evidence. In J. Schramm (Ed.), Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 41 (pp. 107–129). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pastoral Care in Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, May 1). Chernobyl Fox Makes A Bacon Sandwich. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). GSA’s Telecommunications Procurement Program Requires Comprehensive Planning and Management (IMTEC-84-10). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, S. (2017). Experimental Investigations of the Critical Flowback Velocity for Various Types of Proppant in Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids with Different Viscosities [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hale, M. (2017, April 21). It’s Hard Out There For Mercy Killers. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smetacek, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Smetacek, 2001; Zatorre & Krumhansl, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zatorre & Krumhansl, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Royle et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Martinowich et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePastoral Care in Education
AbbreviationPastor. Care Educ.
ISSN (print)0264-3944
ISSN (online)1468-0122
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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