How to format your references using the Palaios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sagarin, R., 2001, False estimates of the advance of spring: Nature, v. 414, p. 600.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Wit, J., and Seager, S., 2013, Constraining exoplanet mass from transmission spectroscopy: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 342, p. 1473–1477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prieto, M.A., Brunetti, G., and Mack, K.-H., 2002, Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 298, p. 193–195.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Liu, T.-M., Yu, J., Chang, C.A., Chiou, A., Chiang, H.K., Chuang, Y.-C., Wu, C.-H., Hsu, C.-H., Chen, P.-A., and Huang, C.-C., 2014, One-step shell polymerization of inorganic nanoparticles and their applications in SERS/nonlinear optical imaging, drug delivery, and catalysis: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 5593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Souza de Cursi, E., 2015, Variational Methods for Engineers with Matlab®: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
O’Donohue, W.T., and James, L. (eds.), 2009, The Primary Care Toolkit: Practical Resources for the Integrated Behavioral Care Provider: Springer, New York, NY, XII, 333 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Izmailov, I., Poizner, B., Romanov, I., and Smolskiy, S., 2016, Single- and Double-Circuit Nonlinear Ring InterferometerInterferometer – Double-Circuit Nonlinear Ring Interferometer (Dnri) as a CiphererCipherer in Optical SystemsCipherer – Cipherer in Optical Systems of Synchronous Chaotic Communications, in Poizner, B., Romanov, I., and Smolskiy, S., eds., Cryptology Transmitted Message Protection: From Deterministic Chaos up to Optical Vortices: Signals and Communication Technology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, p. 215–257.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaios.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016, Man Missing Most Of His Brain Challenges Everything We Thought We Knew About Consciousness: IFLScience. Checked October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004, Commercial Activities in Schools: Use of Student Data is Limited and Additional Dissemination of Guidance Could Help Districts Develop Policies: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-04-810.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCullough, J., 2009, Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. A retrospective study to determine if these factors are correlated in a clinical setting. A project report: Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017, A Washington Monument To Pitching’s Fickle Nature: New York Times, p. SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sagarin, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Sagarin, 2001; de Wit and Seager, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Wit and Seager, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaios
ISSN (print)0883-1351
ISSN (online)1938-5323
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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