How to format your references using the Palaios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, J., 2007, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Water, water, not everywhere? Introduction to special issue: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 317, p. 1705.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norvell, A., and McMahon, S.B., 2010, Cell biology. Rise of the rival: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 327, p. 964–965.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murphy, G.E., Leadbetter, J.R., and Jensen, G.J., 2006, In situ structure of the complete Treponema primitia flagellar motor: Nature, v. 442, p. 1062–1064.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Niemi, M.E.K., Martin, H.C., Rice, D.L., Gallone, G., Gordon, S., Kelemen, M., McAloney, K., McRae, J., Radford, E.J., Yu, S., Gecz, J., Martin, N.G., Wright, C.F., Fitzpatrick, D.R., et al., 2018, Common genetic variants contribute to risk of rare severe neurodevelopmental disorders: Nature, v. 562, p. 268–271.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schorn, C., and Taylor, B., 2004, NMR Spectroscopy: Data Acquisition: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Markert, B. (ed.), 2011, Advances in Extended and Multifield Theories for Continua: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XX, 220 p. 79 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Alexander, T.D., 2016, The Black Messiah and Black Suffering, in Clark, J.E., ed., Albert Cleage Jr. and the Black Madonna and Child: Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, p. 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaios.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014, Death Star Moon Could Have An Ocean: IFLScience. Checked October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988, Biotechnology: Managing the Risks of Field Testing Genetically Engineered Organisms: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-88-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry, G.C., 2014, Students’ experiences with simulation education: Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Edge, J.T., 2017, The Hidden Radicalism of Southern Food: New York Times, p. SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2007; Norvell and McMahon, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Norvell and McMahon, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Niemi et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaios
ISSN (print)0883-1351
ISSN (online)1938-5323
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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