How to format your references using the Palaios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ensslin, T.A., 2006, Astronomy. Radio traces of cosmic shock waves: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 314, p. 772–773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto, Y., and Maller, J.L., 2002, Calcium, calmodulin, and CaMKII requirement for initiation of centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 295, p. 499–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bick, A.G., Calvo, S.E., and Mootha, V.K., 2012, Evolutionary diversity of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 336, p. 886.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Benassi, A., Marioni, M.A., Passerone, D., and Hug, H.J., 2014, Role of interface coupling inhomogeneity in domain evolution in exchange bias: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 4508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gage, L.J., 2008, Hand-Rearing Wild and Domestic Mammals: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Rutkowski, L., Korytkowski, M., Scherer, R., Tadeusiewicz, R., Zadeh, L.A., and Zurada, J.M. (eds.), 2013, Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 12th International Conference, ICAISC 2013, Zakopane, Poland, June 9-13, 2013, Proceedings, Part II: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXII, 625 p. 208 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Backhaus, G.F., 2009, Regulatory Aspects in Chemical Control of Fungal Diseases: Impact on Efficient Plant Production, in Gisi, U., Chet, I., and Gullino, M.L., eds., Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases: Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaios.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014, How Octopuses Don’t Get Tangled Up: IFLScience. Checked October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003, Information Technology: Leadership Remains Key to Agencies Making Progress on Enterprise Architecture Efforts: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-04-40.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rey, D., 2017, Chaos, Observability and Symplectic Structure in Optimal Estimation: Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is professor of psychology, and education at the University of Chicago. His most recent book is “‘Optimal Experience’” (with Isabella Csikszentmihalyi), 1989, MORE WAYS THAN ONE TO BE GOOD: New York Times, p. 76.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ensslin, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Matsumoto and Maller, 2002; Ensslin, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsumoto and Maller, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Benassi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaios
ISSN (print)0883-1351
ISSN (online)1938-5323
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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