How to format your references using the Palaios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham, S., 2003, Finding your way: Nature, v. 425, p. 209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birney, E., and Soranzo, N., 2015, Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing: Nature, v. 526, p. 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wookey, J., Kendall, J.-M., and Barruol, G., 2002, Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy: Nature, v. 415, p. 777–780.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Martinez, P., McGranahan, N., Birkbak, N.J., Gerlinger, M., and Swanton, C., 2013, Computational optimisation of targeted DNA sequencing for cancer detection: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 3309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, T., and Grossman, S., 2007, Moderating Severe Personality Disorders: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chapman, B.M., Massaioli, F., Müller, M.S., and Rorro, M. (eds.), 2012, OpenMP in a Heterogeneous World: 8th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2012, Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2012. Proceedings: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XI, 280 p. 86 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas, H., Brecht, R., Markscheffel, B., Bode, S., and Spekowius, K., 2008, TMchartis – A Tool Set for Designing Multiple Problem-Oriented Visualizations for Topic Maps, in Maicher, L. and Garshol, L.M., eds., Scaling Topic Maps: Third International Conference on Topic Maps Research and Applications, TMRA 2007 Leipzig, Germany, October 11-12, 2007 Revised Selected Papers: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p. 36–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaios.

Blog post
Carpineti, C., 2017, Check Out This Mesmerizing Spanish Dancer Sea Slug: IFLScience. Checked October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996, Intercollegiate Athletics: Status of Efforts to Promote Gender Equity: U.S. Government Printing Office HEHS-97-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solorzano, E., 2014, A mindfulness-based psycho-educational group for caregivers of older adults: A grant proposal: Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2010, Eugene R. Anderson, 82; He Made Insurers Pay Up: New York Times, p. A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buckingham, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Buckingham, 2003; Birney and Soranzo, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birney and Soranzo, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Martinez et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaios
ISSN (print)0883-1351
ISSN (online)1938-5323
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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