How to format your references using the Palaios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kempton, E.M.R., 2014, Extrasolar planets: Window on a watery world: Nature, v. 513, p. 493–494.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, D., and Lu, L., 2007, Anti-correlation of summer/winter monsoons? Nature, v. 450, p. E7-8; discussion E8-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehrlich, P.R., Kareiva, P.M., and Daily, G.C., 2012, Securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization: Nature, v. 486, p. 68–73.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Hooper, I.R., Tremain, B., Dockrey, J.A., and Hibbins, A.P., 2014, Massively sub-wavelength guiding of electromagnetic waves: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 7495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garg, V.K., 2005, Concurrent and Distributed Computing in Java: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fabrizi, M.A. (ed.), 2016, Fantasy Literature: Challenging Genres: SensePublishers, Rotterdam, VIII, 234 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Abrahams, C., 2008, Climate change and lakeshore conservation: a model and review of management techniques, in Wantzen, K.M., Rothhaupt, K.-O., Mörtl, M., Cantonati, M., -Tóth, L.G., and Fischer, P., eds., Ecological Effects of Water-Level Fluctuations in Lakes: Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaios.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014, Croatian Court Upholds Vaccine Mandate: IFLScience. Checked October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005, Electronic Disability Claims Processing: SSA Is Proceeding with Its Accelerated Systems Initiative but Needs to Address Operational Issues: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-05-97.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ji, J.H., 2010, Near-field characteristics of wall jets with tabs: Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J., 2017, Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman: New York Times, p. MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kempton, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Zhang and Lu, 2007; Kempton, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Lu, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hooper et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaios
ISSN (print)0883-1351
ISSN (online)1938-5323
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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