How to format your references using the Palaios citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaios. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Becchetti, F.D., 2002, Nuclear fusion. Evidence for nuclear reactions in imploding bubbles: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 295, p. 1850.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zwierlein, M.W., and Ketterle, W., 2006, Comment on “Pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas”: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 314, p. 54; author reply 54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blomster, J.P., Neff, H., and Glascock, M.D., 2005, Olmec pottery production and export in ancient Mexico determined through elemental analysis: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 307, p. 1068–1072.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Liu, C., Xiao, Y., Li, X., Oppert, B., Tabashnik, B.E., and Wu, K., 2014, Cis-mediated down-regulation of a trypsin gene associated with Bt resistance in cotton bollworm: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 7219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perera, A.H., and Buse, L.J., 2014, Ecology of Wildfire Residuals in Boreal Forests: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bordogna, G., and Psaila, G. (eds.), 2006, Flexible Databases Supporting Imprecision and Uncertainty: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XV, 346 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Nie, J., Qian, Y., and Cui, N., 2012, Enhanced Mirror Adaptive Random Testing Based on I/O Relation Analysis, in Wu, Y., ed., Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 1: Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p. 33–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaios.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015, Why Does Day Care Protect Children Against Leukemia? IFLScience. Checked October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989, ADP Planning: SSA’s February 1989 Report on Computer Modernization Is Incomplete: U.S. Government Printing Office IMTEC-89-76.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison, G.K., 2010, Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport protein and energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients: Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2009, A Gallery Of Heroes, Up for Sale: New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Becchetti, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Becchetti, 2002; Zwierlein and Ketterle, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zwierlein and Ketterle, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaios
ISSN (print)0883-1351
ISSN (online)1938-5323
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles