How to format your references using the Paddy and Water Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paddy and Water Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schulz E (2015) Organic chemistry: One catalyst, two reactions. Nature 517:280–281
A journal article with 2 authors
Trimble SW, Crosson P (2000) LAND USE: U.S. Soil Erosion Rates--Myth and Reality. Science 289:248–250
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnham KW, Nelson J, Stevens RA (2000) Did civil reactors supply plutonium for weapons? Nature 407:833–834
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Meijsing SH, Pufall MA, So AY, et al (2009) DNA binding site sequence directs glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity. Science 324:407–410

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandes R (2014) Local and Regional Flaps in Head & Neck Reconstruction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Recchia L (2011) Multicriteria Analysis and LCA Techniques: With Applications to Agro-Engineering Problems. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Jankowski D, Jackowski K (2014) Evolutionary Algorithm for Decision Tree Induction. In: Saeed K, Snášel V (eds) Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 13th IFIP TC8 International Conference, CISIM 2014, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 5-7, 2014. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 23–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paddy and Water Environment.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Can Wormholes Fix A Major Problem With Black Holes? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) International Aviation: Better Data on Code-Sharing Needed by DOT for Monitoring and Decisionmaking. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kyereboah R (2015) Criteria For Appointing Board Members to Corporate Boards in Ghana. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J (2017) A Deep Dive for Living Treasure. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schulz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Trimble and Crosson 2000; Schulz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trimble and Crosson 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Meijsing et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaddy and Water Environment
AbbreviationPaddy Water Environ.
ISSN (print)1611-2490
ISSN (online)1611-2504
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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