How to format your references using the Paddy and Water Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paddy and Water Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hayes JM (2006) Geochemistry. The pathway of carbon in nature. Science 312:1605–1606
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons NA, Gurrola H (2000) Multiple seismic discontinuities near the base of the transition zone in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 405:559–562
A journal article with 3 authors
Lishko PV, Botchkina IL, Kirichok Y (2011) Progesterone activates the principal Ca2+ channel of human sperm. Nature 471:387–391
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kim JJ, Choi Y, Suresh S, Argon AS (2002) Nanocrystallization during nanoindentation of a bulk amorphous metal alloy at room temperature. Science 295:654–657

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allerton D (2009) Principles of Flight Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Damiani E (2009) Open Source Systems Security Certification. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Parrochia D, Neuville P (2013) Algebra of Trees. In: Neuville P (ed) Towards a General Theory of Classifications. Springer, Basel, pp 93–124

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paddy and Water Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Medical Marijuana - What’s It Good For? In: IFLScience.’s-it-good/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) ADP Modernization: Army Plans To Improve Budget Disclosure for Its Standard Depot System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueck K (2017) Physiology of the Invasive Apple Snail, Pomacea maculata (Perry, 1810), in Louisiana. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) Arconic Gives 3 Board Seats To Hedge Fund, Ending a Fight. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hayes 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Simmons and Gurrola 2000; Hayes 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons and Gurrola 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaddy and Water Environment
AbbreviationPaddy Water Environ.
ISSN (print)1611-2490
ISSN (online)1611-2504
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles