How to format your references using the Paddy and Water Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paddy and Water Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bartram J (2008) Improving on haves and have-nots. Nature 452:283–284
A journal article with 2 authors
Robinson JP, Roederer M (2015) HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Flow cytometry strikes gold. Science 350:739–740
A journal article with 3 authors
Zobel M, Neder RB, Kimber SAJ (2015) Universal solvent restructuring induced by colloidal nanoparticles. Science 347:292–294
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wade CM, Kulbokas EJ 3rd, Kirby AW, et al (2002) The mosaic structure of variation in the laboratory mouse genome. Nature 420:574–578

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beneke D, Peters M, Glasser D, Hildebrandt D (2012) Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hornby GS, Sekanina L, Haddow PC (eds) (2008) Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware: 8th International Conference, ICES 2008, Prague, Czech Republic, September 21-24, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Delfino M, Persico D (2011) Unfolding the Potential of ICT for SRL Development. In: Carneiro R, Lefrere P, Steffens K, Underwood J (eds) Self-Regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments: A European Perspective. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 53–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paddy and Water Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How A Small Backpack For Fast Genomic Sequencing Is Helping Combat Ebola. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Award of Indian Health Professions Scholarships. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tafoya A (2010) Impact of HIV/AIDS stigma on seropositive Latinos along the United States-Mexico border. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Kershaw Could Be Out as Long as Six Weeks. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bartram 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bartram 2008; Robinson and Roederer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robinson and Roederer 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wade et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaddy and Water Environment
AbbreviationPaddy Water Environ.
ISSN (print)1611-2490
ISSN (online)1611-2504
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles