How to format your references using the Paddy and Water Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paddy and Water Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toms DJ (2010) Quantum gravitational contributions to quantum electrodynamics. Nature 468:56–59
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye C, Gay N (2003) Epidemiology. Modeling the SARS epidemic. Science 300:1884–1885
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell FI, McEwen IJ, Viney C (2002) Fibre science: supercontraction stress in wet spider dragline. Nature 416:37
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Munne PM, Gu Y, Tumiati M, et al (2014) TP53 supports basal-like differentiation of mammary epithelial cells by preventing translocation of deltaNp63 into nucleoli. Sci Rep 4:4663

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abulencia JP, Theodore L (2015) Open-Ended Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Clauss-Ehlers CS, Serpell ZN, Weist MD (eds) (2013) Handbook of Culturally Responsive School Mental Health: Advancing Research, Training, Practice, and Policy. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Hajek AE, Tobin PC (2009) North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth. In: Hajek AE, Glare TR, O’Callaghan M (eds) Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 71–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paddy and Water Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) How The Power To Control Objects With Our Minds Stopped Being Science Fiction. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kane BH (2017) A Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry of Communicating in a Multigenerational Traditional-Rational Organization. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) For Men, Sport’s Stigma Dampens Appeal. New York Times SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Toms 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Dye and Gay 2003; Toms 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dye and Gay 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Munne et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaddy and Water Environment
AbbreviationPaddy Water Environ.
ISSN (print)1611-2490
ISSN (online)1611-2504
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles