How to format your references using the Oncology Research and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Research and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
ten Kate K. Global genetic resources. Science and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Science. 2002 Mar;295(5564):2371–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enserink M, Chin G. The end of privacy. Introduction. Science. 2015 Jan;347(6221):490–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weiss E, Kislev ME, Hartmann A. Anthropology. Autonomous cultivation before domestication. Science. 2006 Jun;312(5780):1608–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Caron J-B, Scheltema A, Schander C, Rudkin D. A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Nature. 2006 Jul;442(7099):159–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moe TM, Chubb JE. Liberating Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
Kovačević B. Adaptive Digital Filters. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlopoulos K, Evelpidou N, Vassilopoulos A. Glacial Environments. In: Evelpidou N, Vassilopoulos A, editors. Mapping Geomorphological Environments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009; pp 111–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Research and Treatment.

Blog post
Taub B. SeaWorld Orca Beached Itself To Avoid “Getting Beat Up” By Other Whales [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Jun [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Guide for Writing Executive Summaries. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rardin EA. Corporate Psychopaths and Their Proclivity for Infiltrating Organizations. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Southampton Buys A Girl Scout Camp. New York Times. 2006 Nov;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Research and Treatment
AbbreviationOncol. Res. Treat.
ISSN (print)2296-5270
ISSN (online)2296-5262
ScopeCancer Research

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