How to format your references using the Oncology Research and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Research and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aiken C. HIV: Antiviral action countered by Nef. Nature. 2015 Oct;526(7572):202–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miklius A, Cervelli P. Vulcanology: Interaction between Kilauea and Mauna Loa. Nature. 2003 Jan;421(6920):229.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pepe F, Ehrenreich D, Meyer MR. Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Nature. 2014 Sep;513(7518):358–66.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tomoda M, Dehoux T, Iwasaki Y, Matsuda O, Gusev VE, Wright OB. Nanoscale mechanical contacts mapped by ultrashort time-scale electron transport. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr;4:4790.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eales L-J. Immunology for Life Scientists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Martin FF. Per una storia della geofisica italiana: La nascita dell’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (1936) e la figura di Antonino Lo Surdo. Milano: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Landstrom AP, Tester DJ, Ackerman MJ. Role of Genetic Testing for Sudden Death Predisposing Heart Conditions in Athletes. In: Lawless CE, editor. Sports Cardiology Essentials: Evaluation, Management and Case Studies. New York, NY: Springer; 2011; pp 85–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Research and Treatment.

Blog post
Andrew E. Human Population Predicted To Reach 12 Billion By 2100 [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Treasury Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Board Operations and Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shen F-Y. A pedagogical and analytic comparison of Auguste Franchomme’s twelve Caprices, op. 7 and Alfredo Piatti’s twelve Caprices, op. 25. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Taggart J, Granville K. How We Shop: Past, Present Future. New York Times. 2017 Apr;BU4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Research and Treatment
AbbreviationOncol. Res. Treat.
ISSN (print)2296-5270
ISSN (online)2296-5262
ScopeCancer Research

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