How to format your references using the Oncology Research and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology Research and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian N. Economics: support low-carbon investment. Nature. 2015 Mar;519(7541):27–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harvey CD, Svoboda K. Locally dynamic synaptic learning rules in pyramidal neuron dendrites. Nature. 2007 Dec;450(7173):1195–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jayne BC, Voris HK, Ng PKL. Snake circumvents constraints on prey size. Nature. 2002 Jul;418(6894):143.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schulte-Pelkum V, Monsalve G, Sheehan A, Pandey MR, Sapkota S, Bilham R, et al. Imaging the Indian subcontinent beneath the Himalaya. Nature. 2005 Jun;435(7046):1222–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBattista M. Novel Characters. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Yu M-H. Computational Plasticity: With Emphasis on the Application of the Unified Strength Theory. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lynch ED, Kil J, Le Prell CG. Development of Drugs for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. In: Le Prell CG, Lobarinas E, Popper AN, Fay RR, editors. Translational Research in Audiology, Neurotology, and the Hearing Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 105–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology Research and Treatment.

Blog post
Fang J. Giant Groundhog-Like Mammal Lived Among Dinosaurs [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Nov


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Observations on the National School Lunch Program’s Assessment, Improvement, and Monitoring System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horvath CP. Comparison of waste heat driven and electrically driven cooling systems for a high ambient temperature, off-grid application. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss B. In Baltimore, This Song Is Their Song. New York Times. 2016 Sep;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology Research and Treatment
AbbreviationOncol. Res. Treat.
ISSN (print)2296-5270
ISSN (online)2296-5262
ScopeCancer Research

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