How to format your references using the BMJ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickey BF. Biochemistry. Walking on solid ground. Science 2012;337:924–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sullenger BA, Gilboa E. Emerging clinical applications of RNA. Nature 2002;418:252–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu D, Wang C, Guyot-Sionnest P. n-Type conducting CdSe nanocrystal solids. Science 2003;300:1277–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Niessing J, Ebisch B, Schmidt KE, et al. Hemodynamic signals correlate tightly with synchronized gamma oscillations. Science 2005;309:948–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton E. Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2016.
An edited book
Castelnuovo P. Surgical Anatomy of the Internal Carotid Artery: An Atlas for Skull Base Surgeons. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Harper R, Hamill L. Kids will be Kids: The Role of Mobiles in Teenage Life. In: Hamill L, Lasen A, Diaper D, eds. Mobile World: Past, Present and Future. London: : Springer 2005. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ.

Blog post
Andrew E. Coffee Might Help You Live Longer. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Follow Up of Sanitary Conditions in Selected Food Industries. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoscoe BT. Assistive technology and the promotion of inclusion for special needs children in public schools: A grant proposal. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Sorting Out Their Goals, and Options. New York Times. 2009;:WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ
ISSN (print)0959-8138
ISSN (online)1756-1833

Other styles