How to format your references using the Oecologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta S (2015) Surgery: Diverse interventions. Nature 526:S6-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Smethurst DP, Williams HC (2001) Power laws. Are hospital waiting lists self-regulating? Nature 410:652–653
A journal article with 3 authors
Young WR, Roberts AJ, Stuhne G (2001) Reproductive pair correlations and the clustering of organisms. Nature 412:328–331
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xie SP, Liu WT, Liu Q, Nonaka M (2001) Far-reaching effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the Pacific Ocean-atmosphere system. Science 292:2057–2060

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huber PJ (2011) Data Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Jin D, Lin S (eds) (2011) Advances in Computer Science, Intelligent System and Environment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Fikentscher W, Hacker P, Podszun R (2013) Sanctions and Procedure. In: Hacker P, Podszun R (eds) FairEconomy: Crises, Culture, Competition and the Role of Law. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 131–147

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) How To Watch Sunday’s Rare Supermoon Eclipse, The Last For Almost 20 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Batteries and Energy Storage: Federal Initiatives Supported Similar Technologies and Goals but Had Key Differences. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wonnacott CJ (2017) Ambiguity in Theory and Neutrality in Practice: The Allied Intervention and the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) And Here’s How It Got on Your Head. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gupta 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Smethurst and Williams 2001; Gupta 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smethurst and Williams 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia
ISSN (print)0029-8549
ISSN (online)1432-1939
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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