How to format your references using the Oecologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Besansky NJ (2014) Malaria: How vector mosquitoes beat the heat. Nature 516:334–336
A journal article with 2 authors
Takeuchi T, Morris RGM (2014) Neuroscience: Shedding light on a change of mind. Nature 513:323–324
A journal article with 3 authors
Maeda H, Norum DVL, Gallagher TF (2005) Microwave manipulation of an atomic electron in a classical orbit. Science 307:1757–1760
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jung H, In C, Choi H, Lee H (2014) Anisotropy modeling of terahertz metamaterials: polarization dependent resonance manipulation by meta-atom cluster. Sci Rep 4:5217

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2000) Guidelines for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ravela S, Sandu A (eds) (2015) Dynamic Data-Driven Environmental Systems Science: First International Conference, DyDESS 2014, Cambridge, MA, USA, November 5-7, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Guz E (2016) Learner Perception of Academic Register at the Undergraduate Level. In: Chodkiewicz H, Steinbrich P, Krzemińska-Adamek M (eds) Working with Text and Around Text in Foreign Language Environments. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–87

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Holy Hand Grenade Dating Back To The Crusades Discovered In Israel. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Inventory Management: The Army Could Reduce Logistics Costs for Aviation Parts by Adopting Best Practices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wignall J (2013) No longer in the shadows: Identity, citizenship, and belonging among undocumented college students in Southern California. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Drossman SR, Port ER, Sonnenblick EB (2015) Why the Annual Mammogram Matters. New York Times A31

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Besansky 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Takeuchi and Morris 2014; Besansky 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Takeuchi and Morris 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Jung et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia
ISSN (print)0029-8549
ISSN (online)1432-1939
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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