How to format your references using the Oecologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A (2000) ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Harbinger of a Litigious Future? Science 290:1076
A journal article with 2 authors
Bauer J, Prenzel M (2012) Science education. European teacher training reforms. Science 336:1642–1643
A journal article with 3 authors
Navarro-González R, McKay CP, Mvondo DN (2001) A possible nitrogen crisis for Archaean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning. Nature 412:61–64
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pasupathy AN, Bialczak RC, Martinek J, et al (2004) The Kondo effect in the presence of ferromagnetism. Science 306:86–89

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marston RC (2011) Portfolio Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Silverman H, Ruggles DF (eds) (2009) Intangible Heritage Embodied. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Banach R (2008) Model Based Refinement and the Tools of Tomorrow. In: Börger E, Butler M, Bowen JP, Boca P (eds) Abstract State Machines, B and Z: First International Conference, ABZ 2008, London, UK, September 16-18, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 42–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Meet Five Of The UK’s Most Poisonous Plants. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Pipeline Safety: Better Data and Guidance Could Improve Operators’ Responses to Incidents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Himschoot AR (2012) Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2000) Veggies vs. a Courthouse: Worries and Reassurance. New York Times 149

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler 2000; Bauer and Prenzel 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bauer and Prenzel 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Pasupathy et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia
ISSN (print)0029-8549
ISSN (online)1432-1939
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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