How to format your references using the Oecologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oecologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson D (2000) UK ethicists back use of stem cells. Nature 404:697
A journal article with 2 authors
Ordureau A, Harper JW (2014) Cell biology: balancing act. Nature 510:347–348
A journal article with 3 authors
Bibring J-P, Squyres SW, Arvidson RE (2006) Planetary science. Merging views on Mars. Science 313:1899–1901
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ishimura S, Furuhashi M, Mita T, et al (2014) Reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits neointima formation after vascular injury. Sci Rep 4:6943

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ray Chaudhuri N, Chaudhuri B, Majumder R, Yazdani A (2014) Multi-Terminal Direct-Current Grids. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Louys J (ed) (2012) Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kavousifard A, Samet H (2011) A Novel Method Based on Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network for Power System Load Prediction. In: Ryżko D, Rybiński H, Gawrysiak P, Kryszkiewicz M (eds) Emerging Intelligent Technologies in Industry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oecologia.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) This Device Eats Polluted Air And Spits Out Power. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Mass Transit Grants: UMTA Needs to Improve Procurement Monitoring at Local Transit Authority. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight AK (2017) Beyond Leveraged Purchasing: Using Strengthened Buyer/Supplier Relationships to Accomplish Sustainable Strategic Sourcing and Smarter Single Source Acquisitions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper BM (2017) The Tailor of 125th Street. New York Times ST1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson 2000; Ordureau and Harper 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ordureau and Harper 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ishimura et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOecologia
ISSN (print)0029-8549
ISSN (online)1432-1939
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles