How to format your references using the Ocean Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchman, T.G., 2002. The community of the self. Nature 420, 246–251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lieberman, R.L., Rosenzweig, A.C., 2005. Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane. Nature 434, 177–182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Djuranovic, S., Nahvi, A., Green, R., 2012. miRNA-mediated gene silencing by translational repression followed by mRNA deadenylation and decay. Science 336, 237–240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lin, X., Wang, Z., Gao, F., Zhang, B., Chen, H., 2014. Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation. Sci. Rep. 4, 4190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Neiger, D., 2009. Value-Focused Business Process Engineering : a Systems Approach: with Applications to Human Resource Management, Integrated Series in Information Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Bellettini, G., Beorchia, V., Paolini, M., Pasquarelli, F., 2015. Solving the Completion Problem, in: Beorchia, V., Paolini, M., Pasquarelli, F. (Eds.), Shape Reconstruction from Apparent Contours: Theory and Algorithms, Computational Imaging and Vision. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Modelling.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Can You Figure Out How This Viral “Infinite Chocolate” Trick Works? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Use of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s ATS-6 Communications Satellite To Broadcast Educational Television Programs in India (No. ID-76-75). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, R., 2010. A mentoring program for Latino foster youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2016. 139 Years Ago: American Museum of Natural History Opens Its Permanent Home. New York Times C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buchman, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Buchman, 2002; Lieberman and Rosenzweig, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lieberman and Rosenzweig, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Modelling
AbbreviationOcean Model. (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)1463-5003
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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