How to format your references using the Ocean Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm, V., 2014. Astronomy. Imprint of an ancient conflagration. Science 345, 868–869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milutinovich, M., Koshland, D.E., 2003. Molecular biology. SMC complexes--wrapped up in controversy. Science 300, 1101–1102.
A journal article with 3 authors
Courchamp, F., Woodroffe, R., Roemer, G., 2003. Removing protected populations to save endangered species. Science 302, 1532.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yanagida, T., Nagashima, K., Oka, K., Kanai, M., Klamchuen, A., Park, B.H., Kawai, T., 2013. Scaling effect on unipolar and bipolar resistive switching of metal oxides. Sci. Rep. 3, 1657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snopek, L., 2012. The Complete Guide to Portfolio Construction and Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Köbler, U., 2010. Renormalization Group Theory: Impact on Experimental Magnetism, Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrade, W.L., Machado, P.D.L., Alves, E.L.G., Almeida, D.R., 2009. Test Case Generation of Embedded Real-Time Systems with Interruptions for FreeRTOS, in: Oliveira, M.V.M., Woodcock, J. (Eds.), Formal Methods: Foundations and Applications: 12th Brazilian Symposium on Formal Methods, SBMF 2009 Gramado, Brazil, August 19-21, 2009 Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 54–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Modelling.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Incredible New Map Of Mercury Revealed [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. NASA: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Assess Long-Term Affordability of Human Exploration Programs (No. GAO-14-385). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clarke, P.N., 2008. Program evaluation: A study to evaluate the effectiveness of an alternative education program in a rural county of a mid-Atlantic U.S. state (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2013. Scrooge Has a Sense of Humor. New York Times E13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bromm, 2014; Milutinovich and Koshland, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milutinovich and Koshland, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yanagida et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Modelling
AbbreviationOcean Model. (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)1463-5003
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Atmospheric Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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