How to format your references using the Nuclear Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellerbroek B. Astronomical instrumentation: Atmospheric blurring has a new enemy. Nature 2014;512:144–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meinhart A, Cramer P. Recognition of RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by 3’-RNA-processing factors. Nature 2004;430:223–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson FE, Anisimov OA, Shiklomanov NI. Subsidence risk from thawing permafrost. Nature 2001;410:889–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Johnson DM, Liebhold AM, Tobin PC, Bjørnstad ON. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth. Nature 2006;444:361–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul S. Digital Video Distribution in Broadband, Television, Mobile and Converged Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Navab N, Hornegger J, Wells WM, Frangi AF, editors. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2015: 18th International Conference, Munich, Germany, October 5-9, 2015, Proceedings, Part III. vol. 9351. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Matricon J, Giuffrida A. Cannabinoid Modulation of Dopaminergic Circuits in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders. In: Van Bockstaele EJ, editor. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Monoamines in Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 73–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Would Be Almost Impossible Without Climate Change. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Education and Counseling Pilot Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashrafzadeh MH. Provision of community services for the mentally challenged population in Iran. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Bank Hires Tech Expert to Court Traditional Firms. New York Times 2017:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationNucl. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0969-8051
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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