How to format your references using the Nuclear Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knowles MT. How metrics could have saved UK car industry. Nature 2000;405:13–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nash JD, Moum JN. River plumes as a source of large-amplitude internal waves in the coastal ocean. Nature 2005;437:400–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jacobson MZ, Colella WG, Golden DM. Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Science 2005;308:1901–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brown KN, Chen S, Han Z, Lu C-H, Tan X, Zhang X-J, et al. Clonal production and organization of inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex. Science 2011;334:480–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson D, Hogan JD, Clark PM. Developmental Psychology in Historical Perspective. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Gan Z. Visual Sensing and its Applications: Integration of Laser Sensors to Industrial Robots. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Boccaccio A, Brunelli R, Lamberti L, Papi M, Parasassi T, De Spirito M, et al. A Preliminary Investigation on the Mechanical Behavior of Umbilical Cord With Moiré Techniques. In: Jin H, Sciammarella C, Yoshida S, Lamberti L, editors. Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 47–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Atomic Clocks On Europe’s Galileo Satellites Are Failing, And No One Is Sure Why. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Evaluation of Army’s Mobile Subscriber Equipment Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detweiler KR. Exploring Discursive Interaction, Habitus, and Dynamic Co-emergence Among an Agency Leader and Congressional Oversight Committee: A Case Study of Languaging in Practice. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Border Accord With Russia. New York Times 2003:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationNucl. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0969-8051
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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