How to format your references using the Nuclear Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Cook RF. Materials science. Probing the nanoscale. Science 2010;328:183–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Wulf WA, Jones AK. Computer science. Reflections on cybersecurity. Science 2009;326:943–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Bland-Hawthorn J, Harwit A, Harwit M. Astronomy. Laser telemetry from space. Science 2002;297:523.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Bayer M, Nawy T, Giglione C, Galli M, Meinnel T, Lukowitz W. Paternal control of embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 2009;323:1485–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Laursen GHN, Thorlund J. Business Analytics for Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Liu Q. TA-Q-BIN: Service Excellence and Innovation in Urban Logistics. 1st ed. 2015. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Artyukov IA, Busarov AS, Popov NL, Vinogradov AV. Optical Transforms Related to Coherent Imaging of Inclined Objects. In: Sebban S, Gautier J, Ros D, Zeitoun P, editors. X-Ray Lasers 2012: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, 11–15 June 2012, Paris, France, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 19–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Science May Have Solved Why Taking Deep Breaths Calms You Down. IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. USDA Graduate School: Revenue Reporting Needs to Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Alsobrook JA. Music Education in America: A Content Analysis and National Perspective of Standards-Based Outcomes for K–8 General Music. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Rashbaum WK, Kaplan T. U.S. Says Assembly Speaker Took Millions in Payoffs, Abusing Office. New York Times 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationNucl. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0969-8051
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles