How to format your references using the Nuclear Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Eisenstein M. Protein arrays: growing pains. Nature 2006;444:959–62.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Siekmann AF, Lawson ND. Notch signalling limits angiogenic cell behaviour in developing zebrafish arteries. Nature 2007;445:781–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hirata A, Klein BJ, Murakami KS. The X-ray crystal structure of RNA polymerase from Archaea. Nature 2008;451:851–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Bouarab K, Melton R, Peart J, Baulcombe D, Osbourn A. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences. Nature 2002;418:889–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Seagal ZM, Surnina OM. Ultrasonic Topographical and Pathotopographical Anatomy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Aggarwal CC, editor. Social Network Data Analytics. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Malo MÁ, Pagán R. Hiring Workers with Disabilities When a Quota Requirement Exists: The Relevance of Firm’s Size. In: Malo MÁ, Sciulli D, editors. Disadvantaged Workers: Empirical Evidence and Labour Policies, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Woman Receives 3D Printed Titanium Skull Implant. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Administration: TSA Executive Attrition Has Declined, but Better Information Is Needed on Reasons for Leaving and Executive Hiring Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Stanford CJ. Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating biosensors. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
[1]
St. John Kelly E. Circular Makes the Rounds and Residents Complain. New York Times 1998:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationNucl. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0969-8051
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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