How to format your references using the Nuclear Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Benedetti-Cecchi L. Variance in ecological consumer-resource interactions. Nature 2000;407:370–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Vokrouhlicky D, Farinella P. Efficient delivery of meteorites to the Earth from a wide range of asteroid parent bodies. Nature 2000;407:606–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Parry M, Lowe J, Hanson C. Overshoot, adapt and recover. Nature 2009;458:1102–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Adhikari P, Wen AM, French RH, Parsegian VA, Steinmetz NF, Podgornik R, et al. Electronic structure, dielectric response, and surface charge distribution of RGD (1FUV) peptide. Sci Rep 2014;4:5605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Köhler M. Nanotechnologie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Bermúdez A. Mathematical Models and Numerical Simulation in Electromagnetism. vol. 74. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Liu X, Li J, Zhou D, An Y, Xia X. Preserving the d-Reachability When Anonymizing Social Networks. In: Cui B, Zhang N, Xu J, Lian X, Liu D, editors. Web-Age Information Management: 17th International Conference, WAIM 2016, Nanchang, China, June 3-5, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 40–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Voyager 1: Boldly Going Where No Man-Made Object Has Gone Before. IFLScience 2013. https://www.iflscience.com/space/voyager-1-boldly-going-where-no-man-made-object-has-gone/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. NOAA Aircraft: Aging Fleet and Future Challenges Underscore the Need for a Capital Asset Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Toothaker RD. A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wagner J. Bruce Is Again Hitting Homers, and Again Not Attracting Interest. New York Times 2017:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationNucl. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0969-8051
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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