How to format your references using the Nigerian Food Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Food Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C., 2015. Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts. Nature 521, 426–427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beghein, C., Trampert, J., 2003. Robust normal mode constraints on inner-core anisotropy from model space search. Science 299, 552–555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Y., Peng, R., You, Z., 2015. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels. Science 349, 396–400.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kawamichi, T., Haneda, T., Kawano, M., Fujita, M., 2009. X-ray observation of a transient hemiaminal trapped in a porous network. Nature 461, 633–635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunt-Ahmed, K., 2013. Contemporary Islamic Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Göbel, S., Malkewitz, R., Iurgel, I. (Eds.), 2006. Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment: Third International Conference, TIDSE 2006, Darmstadt, Germany, December 4-6, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bushey, J., 2014. Trustworthy Digital Images and the Cloud: Early Findings of the Records in the Cloud Project, in: Gathegi, J.N., Tonta, Y., Kurbanoğlu, S., Al, U., Taşkın, Z. (Eds.), Challenges of Information Management Beyond the Cloud: 4th International Symposium on Information Management in a Changing World, IMCW 2013, Limerick, Ireland, September 4-6, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Food Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Asteroids Might Have Delivered Water To Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Organization Organic Act (No. 105671). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Houger, V.P., 2011. Generational differences and the impact to employee engagement: A program design (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., Herrman, J., 2016. Once an Outlier, Breitbart Rises to Potent Voice. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adami, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Adami, 2015; Beghein and Trampert, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beghein and Trampert, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawamichi et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Food Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Food J.
ISSN (print)0189-7241

Other styles