How to format your references using the Nigerian Food Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Food Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E., 2003. Grant schemes supporting scientific entrepreneurs have induced job growth in the United States, but they haven’t yet crossed the Atlantic, says Eugene Russo. Nature 425, 988–989.
A journal article with 2 authors
Subrahmanian, V.S., Dickerson, J., 2009. Computer science. What can virtual worlds and games do for national security? Science 326, 1201–1202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, P., Cohen, R.E., Haule, K., 2015. Effects of electron correlations on transport properties of iron at Earth’s core conditions. Nature 517, 605–607.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vigsnaes, L.K., van den Abbeele, P., Sulek, K., Frandsen, H.L., Steenholdt, C., Brynskov, J., Vermeiren, J., van de Wiele, T., Licht, T.R., 2013. Microbiotas from UC patients display altered metabolism and reduced ability of LAB to colonize mucus. Sci. Rep. 3, 1110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tan, Y., 2016. Artificial Immune System Applications in Computersecurity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ambrosio, L., 2005. Gradient Flows: in Metric Spaces and in the Space of Probability Measures, Lectures in Mathematics ETH Zürich. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Robertson, D., 2006. A Problem of their Own, Solutions of their Own: CEE Jurisdictions and the Problems of Lustration and Retroactivity, in: Sadurski, W., Czarnota, A., Krygier, M. (Eds.), Spreading Democracy and the Rule of Law?: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Rule of Law, Democracy and Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Legal Orders. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 73–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Food Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Beyond Dinosaurs, What Would We Need To Create A Jurassic World? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Survey of Pricing on NASA Contract (No. 912452). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McElhoes, J.L., 2017. Spatial, Technological, and Functional Variability Among the Prehistoric Ceramics of the Southern California Coast (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2016. Trump Puts Barometers of Wall St. to the Test. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Russo, 2003; Subrahmanian and Dickerson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Subrahmanian and Dickerson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Vigsnaes et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Food Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Food J.
ISSN (print)0189-7241

Other styles