How to format your references using the Nigerian Food Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Food Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pettitt, C., 2015. Anthropology: One-man multidisciplinarian. Nature 525, 319–320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan, Q., Zhao, Y.-P., 2013. Wetting on flexible hydrophilic pillar-arrays. Sci. Rep. 3, 1944.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford, E.B., Seager, S., Turner, E.L., 2001. Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability. Nature 412, 885–887.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Homes, C.C., Vogt, T., Shapiro, S.M., Wakimoto, S., Ramirez, A.P., 2001. Optical response of high-dielectric-constant perovskite-related oxide. Science 293, 673–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair, R., Regenstein, J.M., 2015. Genetic Modification and Food Quality. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Koh, H.-J., Kwon, S.-Y., Thomson, M. (Eds.), 2015. Current Technologies in Plant Molecular Breeding: A Guide Book of Plant Molecular Breeding for Researchers, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Adkins, C.E., Mittapalli, R.K., Bohn, K.A., Bansal, A., Venishetty, V.K., Lockman, P.R., 2012. Vascular Permeability Within Brain Metastases, in: Palmieri, D. (Ed.), Central Nervous System Metastasis, the Biological Basis and Clinical Considerations. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Food Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Icy Plumes Bursting From Saturn’s Moon Enceladus Suggest It Could Harbour Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Gas Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Observations on the Integrity Management Program and 7-Year Reassessment Requirement (No. GAO-06-474T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, L.A., 2009. Nursing surveillance in the acute care setting: Latent variable development and analysis (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2017. A Creative Enclave That Welcomes the Eclectic. New York Times RE13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pettitt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pettitt, 2015; Yuan and Zhao, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuan and Zhao, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Homes et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Food Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Food J.
ISSN (print)0189-7241

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