How to format your references using the Nigerian Food Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Food Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Orgel, L.E., 2004. Molecular biology. Retrospective: Francis Crick (1916-2004). Science 305, 1118.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arnold, D.H., Johnston, A., 2003. Motion-induced spatial conflict. Nature 425, 181–184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Phelps, J., Webb, E.L., Agrawal, A., 2010. Land use. Does REDD+ threaten to recentralize forest governance? Science 328, 312–313.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biswas, S., Grant, M., Samajdar, I., Haldar, A., Sain, A., 2013. Micromechanics of emergent patterns in plastic flows. Sci. Rep. 3, 2728.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garber, R., 2014. BIM Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Taylor, R.H., Yang, G.-Z. (Eds.), 2011. Information Processing in Computer-Assisted Interventions: Second International Conference, IPCAI 2011, Berlin, Germany, June 22, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Swamee, P.K., Chahar, B.R., 2015. General Principles of Canal Design, in: Chahar, B.R. (Ed.), Design of Canals, Springer Transactions in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 59–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Food Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Protect Your Privacy During Turbulent Times: A Hacker’s Guide To Being Cyber-Safe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Mass Transit: FTA’s New Starts Funding Criteria (No. RCED-98-189R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Myers, R.E., 2010. Moderating the effectiveness of messages to promote physical activity in type 2 diabetes (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. CNN Fires Trump Booster Over Use of a Nazi Phrase. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Orgel, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Arnold and Johnston, 2003; Orgel, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arnold and Johnston, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Biswas et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Food Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Food J.
ISSN (print)0189-7241

Other styles