How to format your references using the Nigerian Food Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Food Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinert, T., 2007. Cell biology. What a cell should know (but may not). Science 315, 1374–1375.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patel, M.R., Shen, K., 2009. RSY-1 is a local inhibitor of presynaptic assembly in C. elegans. Science 323, 1500–1503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poolman, B., Geertsma, E.R., Slotboom, D.-J., 2007. Biochemistry. A missing link in membrane protein evolution. Science 315, 1229–1231.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yeromin, A.V., Zhang, S.L., Jiang, W., Yu, Y., Safrina, O., Cahalan, M.D., 2006. Molecular identification of the CRAC channel by altered ion selectivity in a mutant of Orai. Nature 443, 226–229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, M., 2015. Inside the Crystal Ball. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gupta, A.K., 2013. Elliptically Contoured Models in Statistics and Portfolio Theory, 2nd ed. 2013. ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Brodersen, A., Büscher, M., Christensen, M., Eriksen, M.A., Grønbæk, K., Kristensen, J.F., Kramp, G., Krogh, P., Ludvigsen, M., Mogensen, P.H., Nielsen, M.B., Shapiro, D., Ørbæk, P., 2007. Spatial Computing and Spatial Practices, in: Streitz, N., Kameas, A., Mavrommati, I. (Eds.), The Disappearing Computer: Interaction Design, System Infrastructures and Applications for Smart Environments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Food Journal.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Dickless Spanish Microworm Has Strange Approach To Sex [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Telecommunications: Federal and State Universal Service Programs and Challenges to Funding (No. GAO-02-187). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lopez, C., 2015. A community-based outreach program for Latinos in Los Angeles County supporting mental health awareness and treatment: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2007. After 117 Years, a Family Business Calls It Quits. New York Times WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weinert, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Patel and Shen, 2009; Weinert, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patel and Shen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yeromin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Food Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Food J.
ISSN (print)0189-7241

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