How to format your references using the Nigerian Food Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Food Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., 2006. Ecology. Complexities of coral reef recovery. Science 311, 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, G., Zhou, L., 2014. Zwitterionic versus canonical amino acids over the various defects in zeolites: a two-layer ONIOM calculation. Sci. Rep. 4, 6594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaeberlein, M., Rabinovitch, P.S., Martin, G.M., 2015. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine. Science 350, 1191–1193.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, M., Ding, J., Gu, H., Zhang, Y., Pan, S., Xu, N., Chen, H., Li, H., 2013. Facilitated diffusion of acetonitrile revealed by quantitative breath analysis using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Sci. Rep. 3, 1205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chow, S.-C., Liu, J.-P., 2005. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wulfhorst, G., Klug, S. (Eds.), 2016. Sustainable Mobility in Metropolitan Regions: Insights from Interdisciplinary Research for Practice Application, Studien zur Mobilitäts- und Verkehrsforschung. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Halsnæs, K., Kaspersen, P.S., Trærup, S., 2016. Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia, in: Uitto, J.I., Shaw, R. (Eds.), Sustainable Development and Disaster Risk Reduction, Disaster Risk Reduction. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Food Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Fossil Of World’s Earliest Modern Bird Could Help Us Understand The Extinction Of Dinosaurs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Biosurveillance: Observations on the Cancellation of BioWatch Gen-3 and Future Considerations for the Program (No. GAO-14-267T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Driskill, K.M., 2010. A qualitative study of teacher understanding and use of differentiated instruction to promote reading achievement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Adkins, M., 2015. Where Elmo’s People Shop. New York Times MB3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoegh-Guldberg, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hoegh-Guldberg, 2006; Yang and Zhou, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Zhou, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Food Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Food J.
ISSN (print)0189-7241

Other styles