How to format your references using the Neuroimmunomodulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroimmunomodulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reitz SR: Ecology. Invasion of the whiteflies. Science 2007;318:1733–1734.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghazanfar AA, Logothetis NK: Neuroperception: facial expressions linked to monkey calls. Nature 2003;423:937–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oxborrow M, Breeze JD, Alford NM: Room-temperature solid-state maser. Nature 2012;488:353–356.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kosaka H, Inagaki T, Rikitake Y, Imamura H, Mitsumori Y, Edamatsu K: Spin state tomography of optically injected electrons in a semiconductor. Nature 2009;457:702–705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH, Drew LJ: Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Passey D, Breiter A, Visscher A (eds): Next Generation of Information Technology in Educational Management: 10th IFIP WG 3.7 Conference, ITEM 2012, Bremen, Germany, August 5-8, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Aavani A, Wu X, Tasharrofi S, Ternovska E, Mitchell D: Enfragmo: A System for Modelling and Solving Search Problems with Logic; in Bjørner N, Voronkov A (eds): Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 18th International Conference, LPAR-18, Mérida, Venezuela, March 11-15, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp 15–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroimmunomodulation.

Blog post
Luntz S: Pluto and Charon Show Their True Colors. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Maritime Security: DHS Could Benefit from Tracking Progress in Implementing the Small Vessel Security Strategy. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haigh CV: More Than Skin Deep: The Impact of Self-Esteem, Desire for Lighter Skin, and Gender on the Mental Health of University Students in Thailand 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M: For Men, Sport’s Stigma Dampens Appeal. New York Times 2012;SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroimmunomodulation
ISSN (print)1021-7401
ISSN (online)1423-0216
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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