How to format your references using the Neuroimmunomodulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroimmunomodulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Durrer R. Astronomy. Is the mystery of cosmic magnetic fields solved? Science. 2006 Feb;311(5762):787–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leeman DS, Brunet A. Stem cells: Sex specificity in the blood. Nature. 2014 Jan;505(7484):488–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christodoulides DN, Lederer F, Silberberg Y. Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices. Nature. 2003 Aug;424(6950):817–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiang Z, Kasahara Y, Asaba T, Lawson B, Tinsman C, Chen L, et al. Quantum oscillations of electrical resistivity in an insulator. Science. 2018 Oct;362(6410):65–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf RA. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Surface Modification. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Salsa S. Equazioni a derivate parziali: Complementi ed esercizi. Milano: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Busiol D, Lee TY. Prevention of Cyberbullying: A Conceptual Review. In: Lee TY, Shek DTL, Sun RCF, editors. Student Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: Theory, Intervention and Research. Singapore: Springer; 2015; pp 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroimmunomodulation.

Blog post
Hale T. Robot Solves Rubik’s Cube In Mind-Blowing 0.637 Seconds [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Mar [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improvements Needed in DOT’s Hazardous Materials Rail Safety Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barger B. A Quantitative Study of Educational Poverty, School Location, and Student Achievement Measured by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Still Standing, if Barely Upright, Cubs Face a Quick Turnaround. New York Times. 2017 Oct;SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroimmunomodulation
ISSN (print)1021-7401
ISSN (online)1423-0216
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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