How to format your references using the Neuroimmunomodulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroimmunomodulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloch I. Quantum coherence and entanglement with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Nature. 2008 Jun;453(7198):1016–22.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pena LD, Goldstein SL. Thermohaline circulation crisis and impacts during the mid-Pleistocene transition. Science. 2014 Jul;345(6194):318–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buszczak M, Paterno S, Spradling AC. Drosophila stem cells share a common requirement for the histone H2B ubiquitin protease scrawny. Science. 2009 Jan;323(5911):248–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kitamura N, Kitahara M, Shoji M, Miyoshi Y, Hasegawa H, Nakamura S, et al. Direct measurements of two-way wave-particle energy transfer in a collisionless space plasma. Science. 2018 Sep;361(6406):1000–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gros D, Lannoo K. The Euro Capital Market. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Kolodkin VM, Ruck W, editors. Ecological Risks Associated with the Destruction of Chemical Weapons. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
de Bruijn H, ten Heuvelhof EF, in ‘t Veld R. The Process Architect in Action: Making a Process Design. In: ten Heuvelhof E, in ’t Veld R, editors. Process Management: Why Project Management Fails in Complex Decision Making Processes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010; pp 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroimmunomodulation.

Blog post
Hale T. The Bizarre Story Of Japan’s First Astronaut [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Apr


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Teacher Corps Programs Operated by the Buffalo State University College, the New York University, and the Harlem Institute for Teachers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee MY-L. The intellectual origins of Lin Yutang’s cultural internationalism, 1928–1938. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Stevenson A. New Scrutiny for JPMorgan in China Hiring. New York Times. 2016 Sep;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroimmunomodulation
ISSN (print)1021-7401
ISSN (online)1423-0216
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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