How to format your references using the Neural Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mirkin, S. M. (2007). Expandable DNA repeats and human disease. Nature, 447(7147), 932–940.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkovits, B. D., & Mayr, C. (2015). Alternative 3’ UTRs act as scaffolds to regulate membrane protein localization. Nature, 522(7556), 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Usdin, M., Guillerm, M., & Chirac, P. (2006). Neglected tests for neglected patients. Nature, 441(7091), 283–284.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hughen, K., Lehman, S., Southon, J., Overpeck, J., Marchal, O., Herring, C., & Turnbull, J. (2004). 14C activity and global carbon cycle changes over the past 50,000 years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 202–207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Summers, N. (2010). Managing Social Service Staff for Excellence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kupiszewski, M. (Ed.). (2013). International Migration and the Future of Populations and Labour in Europe (Vol. 32). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
de Blasio, G., Moreno-Díaz, R., & Moreno-Díaz, R. (2009). Analytical Representation of Intrinsic Directionality in Retinal Cells. In R. Moreno-Díaz, F. Pichler, & A. Quesada-Arencibia (Eds.), Computer Aided Systems Theory - EUROCAST 2009: 12th International Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 15-20, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 33–40). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Networks.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, August 12). New Footage Surfaces Of One Of The Largest Great White Sharks Ever Recorded. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). NASA Procurement: Agencywide Action Needed to Improve Management of Contract Modifications (No. NSIAD-92-87). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox, V. (2015). A Quantitative Analysis of the Yield Curve: Forecasting the Length and End of a Recession (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mele, C., & Stevens, M. (2017, May 3). Bruce Hampton, 70, Jam-Band Patriarch. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mirkin, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Berkovits & Mayr, 2015; Mirkin, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berkovits & Mayr, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Usdin, Guillerm, & Chirac, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hughen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Networks
AbbreviationNeural Netw.
ISSN (print)0893-6080
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience

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