How to format your references using the Neural Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. (2010). Introduction: Curiosity aroused. Nature, 467(7317), S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwamoto, H., & Yagi, N. (2013). The molecular trigger for high-speed wing beats in a bee. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6151), 1243–1246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., Kloc, C., & Batlogg, B. (2000). Fractional quantum Hall effect in organic molecular semiconductors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5475), 2338–2340.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Scanlan, C. N., Offer, J., Zitzmann, N., & Dwek, R. A. (2007). Exploiting the defensive sugars of HIV-1 for drug and vaccine design. Nature, 446(7139), 1038–1045.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dao, T. T., & Ho Ba Tho, M.-C. (2014). Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Alladi, K., Bhargava, M., Savitt, D., & Tiep, P. H. (Eds.). (2013). Quadratic and Higher Degree Forms (Vol. 31). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiszczak, A. (2016). The Learning Potential of Study Questions in TEFL Textbooks. In H. Chodkiewicz, P. Steinbrich, & M. Krzemińska-Adamek (Eds.), Working with Text and Around Text in Foreign Language Environments (pp. 57–73). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Networks.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 23). ESA Launched Sentinel Satellite To Monitor Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Student Aid and Tax Benefits: Better Research and Guidance Will Facilitate Comparison of Effectiveness and Student Use (GAO-02-751). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaceczko, S. D. (2017). A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, January 10). Ruling Seen as Giving an Edge to Challengers of Patents. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson, 2010; Iwamoto & Yagi, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwamoto & Yagi, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Schön et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Scanlan et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Networks
AbbreviationNeural Netw.
ISSN (print)0893-6080
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience

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