How to format your references using the Neural Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quay, P. (2002). Climate change. Ups and downs of CO2 uptake. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5602), 2344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meguro, A., & Sato, Y. (2014). Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice. Scientific Reports, 4, 4555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hunt, G. R., Corballis, M. C., & Gray, R. D. (2001). Animal behaviour: Laterality in tool manufacture by crows. Nature, 414(6865), 707.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Barabási, A. L., Freeh, V. W., Jeong, H., & Brockman, J. B. (2001). Parasitic computing. Nature, 412(6850), 894–897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bosq, D., & Blanke, D. (2007). Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions: Bosq/Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lulle, A. (2016). Ageing, Gender, and Labour Migration (R. King, Ed.). Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Preining, N. (2010). Gödel Logics – A Survey. In C. G. Fermüller & A. Voronkov (Eds.), Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 17th International Conference, LPAR-17, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 10-15, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 30–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Networks.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 21). Zika Is No Longer An International Emergency, But The Threat Still Remains. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Army ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information (IMTEC-90-28FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Veru, P. T. (2009). The National-Dobro Guitar Company: How the resonator guitar survived the age of electric amplification [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, February 2). Case Study in Chaos: Management Experts Grade a Trump White House. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quay, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Meguro & Sato, 2014; Quay, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meguro & Sato, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Hunt et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Barabási et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Networks
AbbreviationNeural Netw.
ISSN (print)0893-6080
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience

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