How to format your references using the Neural Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholson, D. W. (2000). From bench to clinic with apoptosis-based therapeutic agents. Nature, 407(6805), 810–816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stolow, A., & Jonas, D. M. (2004). Chemistry. Multidimensional snapshots of chemical dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5690), 1575–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi, H., Nakatsuji, N., & Suemori, H. (2014). Endodermal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to insulin-producing cells in 3D culture. Scientific Reports, 4, 4488.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zioutas, K., Hoffmann, D. H. H., Dennerl, K., & Papaevangelou, T. (2004). Physics. What is dark matter made of? Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1485–1488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kizer, G. (2013). Digital Microwave Communication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Göknar, İ. C., & Sevgi, L. (Eds.). (2006). Complex Computing-Networks: Brain-like and Wave-oriented Electrodynamic Algorithms (Vol. 104). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fukui, A., Funamizu, A., Fuchinoue, K., Kamoi, M., Taima, A., Fukuhara, R., & Mizunuma, H. (2016). Functional Role of Uterine Natural Killer Cells. In H. Kanzaki (Ed.), Uterine Endometrial Function (pp. 61–81). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Networks.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, August 31). Sorry Everyone, That Alien Signal Was Probably Just A “Terrestrial Disturbance.” IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Aviation Safety: Emergency Revocation Orders of Air Carrier Certificates (RCED-92-10). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradley, K. A. (2014). A Tennessee Irish Picnic: Foodways and Complex Community Dynamics [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. (2017, May 4). Iraqi Forces Open a New Front Against ISIS in West Mosul. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Nicholson, 2000; Stolow & Jonas, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stolow & Jonas, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Takeuchi et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zioutas et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Networks
AbbreviationNeural Netw.
ISSN (print)0893-6080
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience

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