How to format your references using the Neural Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons, R. (2001). Sense and sensibility. Nature, 411(6835), 243.
A journal article with 2 authors
Destexhe, A., & Contreras, D. (2006). Neuronal computations with stochastic network states. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5796), 85–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asphaug, E., Agnor, C. B., & Williams, Q. (2006). Hit-and-run planetary collisions. Nature, 439(7073), 155–160.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xu, S., Jiang, Y., Xu, H., Wang, J., Lin, S., Chen, H., & Zhang, B. (2014). Realization of deep subwavelength resolution with singular media. Scientific Reports, 4, 5212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kumar, V. (2006). Mobile Database Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhang, D. (2016). Discriminative Learning in Biometrics (Y. Xu & W. Zuo, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cardoso, J. M. P., & Diniz, P. C. (2009). Mapping and Execution Optimizations. In P. C. Diniz (Ed.), Compilation Techniques for Reconfigurable Architectures (pp. 109–154). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Networks.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, July 19). We Don’t Need To Cut Down Forests To Produce More Food, Says UN Report. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Cost Savings (NSIAD-96-77). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardin, J. (2010). A study of social cognitive theory: The relationship between professional learning communities and collective teacher efficacy in international school settings [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw, N., & Summers, L. H. (2015, October 24). Uniting Behind a Divisive Health Tax. New York Times, BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simmons, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Destexhe & Contreras, 2006; Simmons, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Destexhe & Contreras, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Asphaug et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Networks
AbbreviationNeural Netw.
ISSN (print)0893-6080
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience

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