How to format your references using the Nephron Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephron Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koshland DE Jr: Special essay. The seven pillars of life. Science 2002;295:2215–2216.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruxin J, Habinshuti A: Crowd control in Rwanda. Nature 2011;474:572–573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kolodner RD, Putnam CD, Myung K: Maintenance of genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science 2002;297:552–557.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Furuike S, Hossain MD, Maki Y, Adachi K, Suzuki T, Kohori A, et al.: Axle-less F1-ATPase rotates in the correct direction. Science 2008;319:955–958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schober H: Transparent Shells. Berlin, Germany, Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, 2015.
An edited book
Anselin L, Rey SJ (eds): Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Dünnweber J, Gorlatch S, Aldinucci M, Campa S, Danelutto M: Adaptable Parallel Components for Grid Programming; in Gorlatch S, Danelutto M (eds): Integrated Research in GRID Computing: CoreGRID Integration Workshop 2005 (Selected Papers) November 28–30, Pisa, Italy. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2007, pp 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephron Extra.

Blog post
Taub B: Acupuncture Reduces Hypertension By Stimulating The Release Of Natural Opioids. IFLScience 2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Cloud-Seeding Activities Carried Out in the United States Under Programs Supported by the Federal Agencies. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis TE: Sedimentation solutions for the Port of Gulfport, MS 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M, Robles F: Two Lives at Crossroads in Ferguson. New York Times 2014;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNephron Extra
AbbreviationNephron Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5529

Other styles