How to format your references using the Nephron Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephron Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGill BJ. Ecology. Matters of scale. Science. 2010 Apr;328(5978):575–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Segers VFM, Lee RT. Stem-cell therapy for cardiac disease. Nature. 2008 Feb;451(7181):937–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lonsdorf EV, Eberly LE, Pusey AE. Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees. Nature. 2004 Apr;428(6984):715–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pawlowski WP, Golubovskaya IN, Timofejeva L, Meeley RB, Sheridan WF, Cande WZ. Coordination of meiotic recombination, pairing, and synapsis by PHS1. Science. 2004 Jan;303(5654):89–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coussy O. Poromechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Bonavida B, editor. Resistance to Immunotherapeutic Antibodies in Cancer: Strategies to Overcome Resistance. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Finn A, Scheding S. Force-Integration of UVS. In: Scheding S, editor. Developments and Challenges for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles: A Compendium. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010; pp 105–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephron Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E. From Newton To Einstein: The Origins Of General Relativity [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improper Payments: Weaknesses in USAID’s and NASA’s Implementation of the Improper Payments Information Act and Recovery Auditing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salonga-Moreno DR. Pressure ulcer prevention and management curriculum for home health agencies. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The Bunker, an Orphan, Finds a Temporary Home. New York Times. 2002 Mar;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNephron Extra
AbbreviationNephron Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5529

Other styles