How to format your references using the Nephron Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephron Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Apeloig Y. Chemistry. The diamond within a silicon analog of cyclobutadiene. Science. 2011 Mar;331(6022):1277–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armakolas A, Klar AJS. Cell type regulates selective segregation of mouse chromosome 7 DNA strands in mitosis. Science. 2006 Feb;311(5764):1146–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Makino DL, Baumgärtner M, Conti E. Crystal structure of an RNA-bound 11-subunit eukaryotic exosome complex. Nature. 2013 Mar;495(7439):70–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
West MJ, Côté P, Marzke RO, Jordán A. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters. Nature. 2004 Jan;427(6969):31–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meghouar H. Corporate Takeover Targets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Choy WCH, editor. Organic Solar Cells: Materials and Device Physics. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ismadji S, Soetaredjo FE, Ayucitra A. The Equilibrium Studies in the Adsorption of Hazardous Substances Using Clay Minerals. In: Soetaredjo FE, Ayucitra A, editors. Clay Materials for Environmental Remediation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 57–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephron Extra.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Neutron Stars Can Produce Jets That Are Just As Powerful As Black Holes’ [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Distance Education: Challenges for Minority Serving Institutions and Implications for Federal Education Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernstein JP. Helical Symmetry. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Liptak A, Walsh MW. Top Court Will Decide Puerto Rico Debt Cases. New York Times. 2015 Dec;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNephron Extra
AbbreviationNephron Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5529

Other styles