How to format your references using the Naturwissenschaften citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Naturwissenschaften. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark JM (2006) Paleontology. A different kind of croc. Science 311:43–44
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenfeld N, Woese C (2007) Biology’s next revolution. Nature 445:369
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandrappa GT, Steunou N, Livage J (2002) Materials chemistry: macroporous crystalline vanadium oxide foam. Nature 416:702
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yun B-W, Feechan A, Yin M, et al (2011) S-nitrosylation of NADPH oxidase regulates cell death in plant immunity. Nature 478:264–268

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daries H (2012) Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Chowdhury MSH (ed) (2014) Forest conservation in protected areas of Bangladesh: Policy and community development perspectives. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Kropinski A, Dore-Duffy P, Kreipke CW (2013) Situating the Endothelin System in the Pathotrajectory of TBI-Induced Changes in Hemodynamics. In: Kreipke CW, Rafols JA (eds) Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism, and Head Trauma: The Pathotrajectory of Traumatic Brain Injury. Springer, New York, NY, pp 95–133

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Naturwissenschaften.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Remote-Controlled Cyborg Cockroaches Could Save Lives. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Weather Forecasting: Radars Far Superior to Predecessors, but Location and Availability Questions Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haneef NJ (2009) A synthesized conceptual framework for the design of user interfaces of interactive information products. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Vote Against Banner Shows Divide on Speech in Schools. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clark 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Clark 2006; Goldenfeld and Woese 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldenfeld and Woese 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yun et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleNaturwissenschaften
AbbreviationSci. Nat.
ISSN (print)0028-1042
ISSN (online)1432-1904
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Medicine

Other styles