How to format your references using the Nature Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter, M. EUROPEAN SCIENCE: Pathogens Lab Chief Stripped of Duties. Science 289, 228b–9b (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmitt, J. H. & Wichmann, R. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star. Nature 412, 508–510 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
Kender, S., Yu, J. & Peck, V. L. Deep ocean carbonate ion increase during mid Miocene CO2 decline. Sci. Rep. 4, 4187 (2014).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Bibby, T. S., Mary, I., Nield, J., Partensky, F. & Barber, J. Low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus species possess specific antennae for each photosystem. Nature 424, 1051–1054 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zheng, F. & Kaiser, T. Digital Signal Processing for RFID. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016).
An edited book
Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning. 13, (Springer, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Ardoino, P. L. & Ioppolo, F. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Vehicle/Seat/Occupant System Regarding Whiplash Injuries. in Whiplash Injuries: Diagnosis and Treatment (eds. Alpini, D. C., Brugnoni, G. & Cesarani, A.) 27–41 (Springer, 2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Fang, J. Nasty Fungus Is Imminent Threat to North American Salamanders. IFLScience (2015). Available at: (Accessed: 30th October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Should Assess the Design of the E-rate Program’s Internal Control Structure. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reyes, J. Connections: A grant proposal for mothers struggling with substance abuse in the child welfare system. (California State University, Long Beach, 2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cobb, J. G. Why Fog Lamps Are Going the Way Of Built-In Ashtrays. New York Times B5 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Nanotechnology
AbbreviationNat. Nanotechnol.
ISSN (print)1748-3387
ISSN (online)1748-3395
Biomedical Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles