How to format your references using the Nature Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bilbe, G. Infectious diseases. Overcoming neglect of kinetoplastid diseases. Science 348, 974–976 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Dagan, T. & Martin, W. Microbiology. Seeing green and red in diatom genomes. Science 324, 1651–1652 (2009).
A journal article with 3 authors
Beaber, J. W., Hochhut, B. & Waldor, M. K. SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Nature 427, 72–74 (2004).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Geim, A. K. et al. Non-quantized penetration of magnetic field in the vortex state of superconductors. Nature 407, 55–57 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French, B. A. Chronicles Through the Centuries. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016).
An edited book
Modeling, Control and Optimization of Water Systems: Systems Engineering Methods for Control and Decision Making Tasks. (Springer, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Karanastasi, A. & Matsatsinis, N. Agent Technology Meets the Semantic Web: Interoperability and Communication Issues. in Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced Semantic Technologies (eds. Badr, Y., Chbeir, R., Abraham, A. & Hassanien, A.-E.) 105–120 (Springer, 2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Citizen Scientists Help Locate “Spiders” On Mars. IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Information on Bridge Conditions. (2015).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mickels, B. J. A phenomenological research study on the formation of global business teams. (University of Phoenix, 2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ADAM LIPTAK; Janet Roberts contributed reporting for this series. Research was contributed by Jack Styczynski et al. Serving Life, With No Chance of Redemption. New York Times A1 (2005).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Nanotechnology
AbbreviationNat. Nanotechnol.
ISSN (print)1748-3387
ISSN (online)1748-3395
Biomedical Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles