How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hell, S. W.: Far-field optical nanoscopy, Science, 316(5828), 1153–1158, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pollard, P. J. and Ratcliffe, P. J.: Cancer. Puzzling patterns of predisposition, Science, 324(5924), 192–194, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Humanes-Valera, D., Foffani, G. and Aguilar, J.: Increased cortical responses to forepaw stimuli immediately after peripheral deafferentation of hindpaw inputs, Sci. Rep., 4, 7278, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Mills, L. S., Bragina, E. V., Kumar, A. V., Zimova, M., Lafferty, D. J. R., Feltner, J., Davis, B. M., Hackländer, K., Alves, P. C., Good, J. M., Melo-Ferreira, J., Dietz, A., Abramov, A. V., Lopatina, N. and Fay, K.: Winter color polymorphisms identify global hot spots for evolutionary rescue from climate change, Science, 359(6379), 1033–1036, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A.: VoLTE and ViLTE, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2016.
An edited book
Hosseini, S.: Novel Polymeric Biochips for Enhanced Detection of Infectious Diseases, edited by F. Ibrahim, Springer, Singapore., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Högselius, P., Kaijser, A. and van der Vleuten, E.: Networked Food Economy, in Europe’s Infrastructure Transition: Economy, War, Nature, edited by A. Kaijser and E. van der Vleuten, pp. 107–140, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Could a supernova be visible from Earth in the next 50 years?, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2013.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armani, M. D.: Nucleic acid extraction and detection across two-dimensional tissue samples, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Former Killing Ground Becomes Shrine to Stalin’s Victims, New York Times, 8th June, A4, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hell, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hell, 2007; Pollard and Ratcliffe, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pollard and Ratcliffe, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Mills et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions
ISSN (online)2195-9269

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