How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel, J. M.: The REM sleep-memory consolidation hypothesis, Science, 294, 1058–1063, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blaser, M. J. and Kirschner, D.: The equilibria that allow bacterial persistence in human hosts, Nature, 449, 843–849, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi-Xiang, Y., Ye, J., and Liu, W.-M.: Goldstone and Higgs modes of photons inside a cavity, Sci. Rep., 3, 3476, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Mochizuki, N., Yamashita, S., Kurokawa, K., Ohba, Y., Nagai, T., Miyawaki, A., and Matsuda, M.: Spatio-temporal images of growth-factor-induced activation of Ras and Rap1, Nature, 411, 1065–1068, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yalaoui, A., Chehade, H., Yalaoui, F., and Amodeo, L.: Optimization of Logistics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Barth, J. R., Tatom, J. A., and Yago, G. (Eds.): China’s Emerging Financial Markets: Challenges and Opportunities, Springer US, Boston, MA, XXII, 658 p pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Wattjes, M. P.: Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, in: Neuromuscular Imaging, edited by: Wattjes, M. P. and Fischer, D., Springer, New York, NY, 27–34, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
Solar Activity Is Responsible For Ceres’ Temporary Atmosphere:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Meeting the Aging Aircraft Challenge: Status and Opportunities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
John, S. P.: Drying without Dying: The Resurrection Fern Pleopeltis polypodioides, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B.: A Circle of Hell: the Staff Meeting, New York Times, 9th October, C1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Siegel, 2001; Blaser and Kirschner, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blaser and Kirschner, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Mochizuki et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions
ISSN (online)2195-9269

Other styles