How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ekeland, I., I.: Mathematics. Curves and numbers, Nature, 405, 748–749, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hajkova, P. and Surani, M. A.: Development. Programming the X chromosome, Science, 303, 633–634, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin, N. H., Daeschler, E. B., and Coates, M. I.: The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus, Science, 304, 90–93, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Sigmundsson, F., Hreinsdóttir, S., Hooper, A., Arnadóttir, T., Pedersen, R., Roberts, M. J., Oskarsson, N., Auriac, A., Decriem, J., Einarsson, P., Geirsson, H., Hensch, M., Ofeigsson, B. G., Sturkell, E., Sveinbjörnsson, H., and Feigl, K. L.: Intrusion triggering of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption, Nature, 468, 426–430, 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fuller, S.: RapidIO®: The Embedded System Interconnect, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
Ahmed, W.: Chemical Vapour Deposition of Diamond for Dental Tools and Burs, edited by: Sein, H., Jackson, M. J., Rego, C., Phoenix, D. A., Elhissi, A., and Crean, S. J., Springer International Publishing, Cham, XI, 140 p. 108 illus., 53 illus. in color pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Herring, D. J.: Evolutionary Perspectives on Child Welfare Law, in: The Evolution of Violence, edited by: Shackelford, T. K. and Hansen, R. D., Springer, New York, NY, 53–72, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
New Mineral Discovered With A Unique Composition:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Competition: Regional Jet Service Yet to Reach Many Small Communities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cordova, M.: The impact of a teacher training program on student engagement, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J.: Thinking About the Future in a Place Where Lives Ended, New York Times, 9th October, A15, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ekeland, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ekeland, 2000; Hajkova and Surani, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hajkova and Surani, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Sigmundsson et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions
ISSN (online)2195-9269

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