How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder, N.: Unfavourable economics put postdocs across Europe under strain, Nature, 407, 427–429, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kambe, T. and Oshima, K.: Dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments in fullerene-based magnets, Sci. Rep., 4, 6419, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carlos, C., Torres, T. T., and Ottoboni, L. M. M.: Bacterial communities and species-specific associations with the mucus of Brazilian coral species, Sci. Rep., 3, 1624, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
de Lau, W., Barker, N., Low, T. Y., Koo, B.-K., Li, V. S. W., Teunissen, H., Kujala, P., Haegebarth, A., Peters, P. J., van de Wetering, M., Stange, D. E., van Es, J. E., Guardavaccaro, D., Schasfoort, R. B. M., Mohri, Y., Nishimori, K., Mohammed, S., Heck, A. J. R., and Clevers, H.: Lgr5 homologues associate with Wnt receptors and mediate R-spondin signalling, Nature, 476, 293–297, 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stamp, M.: Information Security, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Kellermann, A. J., de Haan, J., and de Vries, F. (Eds.): Financial Supervision in the 21st Century, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXVI, 232 p pp., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, X. and Wu, R.: Cross-Border Governance: The Merger of Guangzhou and Foshan, in: Maturing Megacities: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation, edited by: Altrock, U. and Schoon, S., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 83–102, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
WHO Wants To Extend Their Definition Of Infertility To Include Single People:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: U.S. Preparations for the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayres, R.: Optimization of a Novel Oxy-Michael Ugi-Smiles Reaction, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Nakom, New York Times, 2nd March, C11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Loder, 2000; Kambe and Oshima, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kambe and Oshima, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (de Lau et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions
ISSN (online)2195-9269

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