How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karnik, R. N.: Materials science: Breakthrough for protons, Nature, 516, 173–175, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Apesteguía, S. and Zaher, H.: A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum, Nature, 440, 1037–1040, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mukhopadhyay, S., Farley, K. A., and Montanari, A.: A short duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event: evidence from extraterrestrial helium-3, Science, 291, 1952–1955, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Huang, Y., Liu, S., Guo, D., Li, L., and Xiao, Y.: A novel protocol for three-dimensional structure prediction of RNA-protein complexes, Sci. Rep., 3, 1887, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abulencia, J. P. and Theodore, L.: Open-Ended Problems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Rozmaryn, L. M. (Ed.): Fingertip Injuries: Diagnosis, Management and Reconstruction, Springer International Publishing, Cham, XVI, 191 p. 146 illus., 123 illus. in color pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Blackstone, R. P.: The History of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, in: The ASMBS Textbook of Bariatric Surgery: Volume 1: Bariatric Surgery, edited by: Nguyen, N. T., Blackstone, R. P., Morton, J. M., Ponce, J., and Rosenthal, R. J., Springer, New York, NY, 47–59, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
Neutrino Beam Experiment Could Explain A Fundamental Problem With The Universe:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Byrne, S. M.: Metabolic and pathological role of retinyl esters: The role of lecithin:retinol acyl transferase, (LRAT), Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Savage, C. and Sullivan, E.: Sessions Widens Official Inquiry On Media Leaks, New York Times, 4th August, A1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Karnik, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Karnik, 2014; Apesteguía and Zaher, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Apesteguía and Zaher, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions
ISSN (online)2195-9269

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