How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vlieg, E.: Materials science. Complexity from simplicity, Science, 340(6134), 822–823, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Geschwind, D. H. and Konopka, G.: Neuroscience in the era of functional genomics and systems biology, Nature, 461(7266), 908–915, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yan, D., Zhou, Y. and Hou, J.: Supramolecular self-assembly of macroscopic tubes, Science, 303(5654), 65–67, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wellen, K. E., Hatzivassiliou, G., Sachdeva, U. M., Bui, T. V., Cross, J. R. and Thompson, C. B.: ATP-citrate lyase links cellular metabolism to histone acetylation, Science, 324(5930), 1076–1080, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi, M. H. and Zimmerman, M. C.: Wastewater Pathogens, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2004.
An edited book
Proulx, T., Ed.: Experimental Mechanics on Emerging Energy Systems and Materials, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Springer, New York, NY., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Stoimenov, N., Chakraborty, S. and Thiele, L.: Interface-Based Design of Real-Time Systems, in Advances in Real-Time Systems, edited by S. Chakraborty and J. Eberspächer, pp. 83–101, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Scientists Find The “Physical Source” Of Depression, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Child Welfare: Federal Agencies Can Better Support State Efforts to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Abuse by School Personnel, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, T.: Assessing the determinants of information technology adoption in Jamaica’s public sector using the technology acceptance model, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. R.: A Bend in the River, New York Times, 8th November, A35, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vlieg, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Geschwind and Konopka, 2009; Vlieg, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Geschwind and Konopka, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wellen et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions
ISSN (online)2195-9269

Other styles