How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill, L. A. J.: Immunology. After the toll rush, Science, 303, 1481–1482, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shafiq, G. and Veluvolu, K. C.: Surface chest motion decomposition for cardiovascular monitoring, Sci. Rep., 4, 5093, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conway, S. L., Shinbrot, T., and Glasser, B. J.: A Taylor vortex analogy in granular flows, Nature, 431, 433–437, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Luguet, A., Graham Pearson, D., Nowell, G. M., Dreher, S. T., Coggon, J. A., Spetsius, Z. V., and Parman, S. W.: Enriched Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics in plume lavas explained by metasomatic sulfides, Science, 319, 453–456, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bâzu, M. and Băjenescu, T.: Failure Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Lovat, T.: Values Pedagogy and Student Achievement: Contemporary Research Evidence, edited by: Dally, K., Clement, N., and Toomey, R., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XII, 247 p pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Biró, P., Kern, W., Paulusma, D., and Wojuteczky, P.: The Stable Fixtures Problem with Payments, in: Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 41st International Workshop, WG 2015, Garching, Germany, June 17-19, 2015, Revised Papers, edited by: Mayr, E. W., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 49–63, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Pre-Aztec Skull With Stone-Encrusted Teeth Discovered At Ancient City In Mexico:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Guaranteed Student Loans: Analysis of Student Default Rates at 7,800 Postsecondary Schools, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Golf, F.: Search for New Physics in a Final State with Same-Sign Dileptons, Jets, and Missing Transverse Energy at 7 TeV Center of Mass Energy, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K.: World Briefing | Asia: Agreement On Last Leg Of Border, New York Times, 3rd June, A8, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Neill, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (O’Neill, 2004; Shafiq and Veluvolu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shafiq and Veluvolu, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Luguet et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationNat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1561-8633
ISSN (online)1684-9981
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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