How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D.: Ecologists score victory over controversial dyke project, Nature, 410, 619, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, C. M. and Beard, B. L.: Geochemistry. Biogeochemical cycling of iron isotopes, Science, 309, 1025–1027, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naylor, R. L., Williams, S. L., and Strong, D. R.: Ecology. Aquaculture--a gateway for exotic species, Science, 294, 1655–1656, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Reusser, L. J., Bierman, P. R., Pavich, M. J., Zen, E.-A., Larsen, J., and Finkel, R.: Rapid late Pleistocene incision of Atlantic passive-margin river gorges, Science, 305, 499–502, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ledolter, J.: Data Mining and Business Analytics with R, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Müller, V. C. (Ed.): Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XIV, 418 p pp., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
van der Sloot, B. and Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.: Google and Personal Data Protection, in: Google and the Law: Empirical Approaches to Legal Aspects of Knowledge-Economy Business Models, edited by: Lopez-Tarruella, A., T. M. C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands, 75–111, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
The Amazon’s Ancient Human History Is Written In Its Trees:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Office of Personnel Management: Improvements Needed to Ensure Successful Retirement Systems Modernization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satam, G. C.: The mechanical engineering approach for three dimensional modeling procedure and measurements of the heart anatomy, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: All Dollars, All the Time For Harried School Boards, New York Times, 4th December, 14LI1, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2001; Johnson and Beard, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Beard, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Reusser et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationNat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1561-8633
ISSN (online)1684-9981
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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