How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lack, H. W.: Floral tributes, Nature, 411(6834), 137, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arimoto, T. and Sato, Y.: Science and society. Rebuilding public trust in science for policy-making, Science, 337(6099), 1176–1177, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlin, S., Bergman, A. and Gentles, A. J.: Genomics. Annotation of the Drosophila genome, Nature, 411(6835), 259–260, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wang, Y., Duan, C., Peng, L. and Liao, J.: Dimensionality-dependent charge transport in close-packed nanoparticle arrays: from 2D to 3D, Sci. Rep., 4, 7565, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shinohara, H. and Tagmatarchis, N.: Endohedral Metallofullerenes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2015.
An edited book
Yusuf, F.: Methods of Demographic Analysis, edited by J. M. Martins and D. A. Swanson, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Smyth, B.: Adventures in Personalized Information Access, in Machine Learning: ECML 2007: 18th European Conference on Machine Learning, Warsaw, Poland, September 17-21, 2007. Proceedings, edited by J. N. Kok, J. Koronacki, R. L. de Mantaras, S. Matwin, D. Mladenič, and A. Skowron, pp. 5–5, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J.: US Military’s “Self-steering” Bullets Can Hit A Moving Target, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ADP Budget: Potential Reductions to the Department of the Army’s Budget Request, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson, B. N.: Motivation towards learning perceived in Socratic seminar versus traditional lecture, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA., 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B.: Diverting, but No Need to Stop the Presses, New York Times, 21st October, C1, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lack, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Arimoto and Sato, 2012; Lack, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arimoto and Sato, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationNat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1561-8633
ISSN (online)1684-9981
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles