How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baruch, J.: Practical science has a global reach and appeal, Nature, 507(7491), 141, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Okubo, C. H. and McEwen, A. S.: Fracture-controlled paleo-fluid flow in Candor Chasma, Mars, Science, 315(5814), 983–985, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dharmawardhana, C. C., Misra, A. and Ching, W.-Y.: Quantum mechanical metric for internal cohesion in cement crystals, Sci. Rep., 4, 7332, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Spitzer, D., Risse, B., Schnell, F., Pichot, V., Klaumünzer, M. and Schaefer, M. R.: Continuous engineering of nano-cocrystals for medical and energetic applications, Sci. Rep., 4, 6575, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P. I.: Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2013.
An edited book
Rehm, G. and Uszkoreit, H., Eds.: The Norwegian Language in the Digital Age: Bokmalsversjon, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Pestana, E. A., Belak, S., Diallo, A., Crowther, J. R. and Viljoen, G. J.: Disease Diagnosis Using Real-Time PCR Specific Procedures for Important Veterinary Pathogens, in Early, rapid and sensitive veterinary molecular diagnostics - real time PCR applications, edited by S. Belak, A. Diallo, J. R. Crowther, and G. J. Viljoen, pp. 73–234, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Diet Drinks Linked To Expanding Waistlines In Older Adults, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Infrastructure: Interstate Physical Conditions Have Improved, but Congestion and Other Pressures Continue, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Iwuagwu, C. I.: Preventing the Spread of HIV Among Homeless Youth in California, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wakin, D. J. and Walsh, M. W.: Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis, New York Times, 1st December, C1, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baruch, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Baruch, 2014; Okubo and McEwen, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Okubo and McEwen, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Spitzer et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationNat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1561-8633
ISSN (online)1684-9981
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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