How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bargmann, C. I.: Comparative chemosensation from receptors to ecology, Nature, 444, 295–301, 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lamb, S. and Davis, P.: Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes, Nature, 425, 792–797, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Appelbaum, I., Huang, B., and Monsma, D. J.: Electronic measurement and control of spin transport in silicon, Nature, 447, 295–298, 2007.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Waldron, K. J., Rutherford, J. C., Ford, D., and Robinson, N. J.: Metalloproteins and metal sensing, Nature, 460, 823–830, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hase, Y.: Handbook of Power Systems Engineering with Power Electronics Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Sagheb Talebi, K.: Forests of Iran: A Treasure from the Past, a Hope for the Future, edited by: Sajedi, T. and Pourhashemi, M., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, VIII, 152 p. 86 illus., 55 illus. in color pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Zarghami, M. and Szidarovszky, F.: Social Choice Methods, in: Multicriteria Analysis: Applications to Water and Environment Management, edited by: Szidarovszky, F., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 77–93, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Over And Over Again, The Military Has Conducted Dangerous Biowarfare Experiments On Americans:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA Procurement: Improving Oversight of Construction Projects at the Langley Research Center, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borgman, G. A.: Loneliness and the Hermitic Psyche, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B.: Bringing to Light a Seminal Figure, New York Times, 26th August, SP4, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bargmann, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bargmann, 2006; Lamb and Davis, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lamb and Davis, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Waldron et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationNat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1561-8633
ISSN (online)1684-9981
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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