How to format your references using the Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee, P. A.: Physics. An end to the drought of quantum spin liquids, Science, 321, 1306–1307, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sui, H. and Downing, K. H.: Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealed by cryo-electron tomography, Nature, 442, 475–478, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bard, E., Rostek, F., and Ménot-Combes, G.: Paleoclimate. A better radiocarbon clock, Science, 303, 178–179, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Macůrek, L., Lindqvist, A., Lim, D., Lampson, M. A., Klompmaker, R., Freire, R., Clouin, C., Taylor, S. S., Yaffe, M. B., and Medema, R. H.: Polo-like kinase-1 is activated by aurora A to promote checkpoint recovery, Nature, 455, 119–123, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldstein, A. P.: The Psychology of Group Aggression, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2004.
An edited book
Schüermann, M. and Franz, U. (Eds.): Quantum Independent Increment Processes II: Structure of Quantum Levy Processes, Classical Probability, and Physics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVI, 340 p pp., 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Jalava, M.: The Finnish Model of Higher Education Access, in: Fairness in Access to Higher Education in a Global Perspective: Reconciling Excellence, Efficiency, and Justice, edited by: Meyer, H.-D., John, E. P. S., Chankseliani, M., and Uribe, L., SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 79–94, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
LEGO To Launch “Women In NASA” Collection:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on Recommendations in GAO Report], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mickels, B. J.: A phenomenological research study on the formation of global business teams, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Prochnik, G.: City of Earthy Delights, New York Times, 13th December, WK10, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lee, 2008; Sui and Downing, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sui and Downing, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Macůrek et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationNat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1561-8633
ISSN (online)1684-9981
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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