How to format your references using the Nanoscale Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanoscale Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weintraub K (2013) Biomedicine: The new gold standard. Nature 495:S14-6
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitan DR, Ferrell DL (2006) Selection on gamete recognition proteins depends on sex, density, and genotype frequency. Science 312:267–269
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang YG, Pagani M, Liu Z (2014) A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Science 344:84–87
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sarbassov DD, Guertin DA, Ali SM, Sabatini DM (2005) Phosphorylation and regulation of Akt/PKB by the rictor-mTOR complex. Science 307:1098–1101

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ehrlich E, Fanelli D (2012) The Financial Services Marketing Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Aguiar-Moya JP, Vargas-Nordcbeck A, Leiva-Villacorta F, Loría-Salazar LG (2016) The Roles of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability: Engineering, Environment, and Economics. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Mares D, Moschek W (2013) Place in Time: GIS and the Spatial Imagination in Teaching History. In: Lünen A von, Travis C (eds) History and GIS: Epistemologies, Considerations and Reflections. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 59–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanoscale Research Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) 7th Grader Builds Braille Printer From Lego. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) WMATA’s Administrative Costs and Largo Extension. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chalmers TD (2009) The social context of advertising: Authenticity, social identity, and reflected appraisals. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Wimbledon’s Qualifying Tournament Is Both 3½ Miles and a World Away. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoscale Research Letters
AbbreviationNanoscale Res. Lett.
ISSN (print)1931-7573
ISSN (online)1556-276X
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles