How to format your references using the Nanoscale Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanoscale Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sovacool BK (2012) Energy. Deploying off-grid technology to eradicate energy poverty. Science 338:47–48
A journal article with 2 authors
Zamore PD, Haley B (2005) Ribo-gnome: the big world of small RNAs. Science 309:1519–1524
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloss TA, Witze ES, Rothman JH (2003) Suppression of CED-3-independent apoptosis by mitochondrial betaNAC in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 424:1066–1071
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pavlov DA, Bobrov AI, Malekhonova NV, et al (2014) Self-assembled nanocrystals discovered in Chelyabinsk meteorite. Sci Rep 4:4280

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith JDH, Romanowska AB (1999) Post-Modern Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Harteis C, Rausch A, Seifried J (2014) Discourses on Professional Learning: On the Boundary Between Learning and Working. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Karmakar A (2015) E-Governance and Its Role in Infrastructure Services of UAE, Case Study—Dubai. In: Vinod Kumar TM (ed) E-Governance for Smart Cities. Springer, Singapore, pp 81–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanoscale Research Letters.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Researchers Turn To Science To Try And Save World’s Coral Reefs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Telecommunications: FCC Has Made Some Progress in the Management of Its Enforcement Program but Faces Limitations, and Additional Actions Are Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do NH (2012) An examination of support systems to enable Vietnamese immigrants to acquire English skills. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2003) The Czar Didn’t Sleep Here. New York Times F1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoscale Research Letters
AbbreviationNanoscale Res. Lett.
ISSN (print)1931-7573
ISSN (online)1556-276X
ScopeGeneral Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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