How to format your references using the Nanoscale citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanoscale. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Angerer, Nature, 2004, 427, 270.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. J. Corcoran and W. E. Conner, Science, 2014, 346, 745–747.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. S. Griffin, S. A. West and A. Buckling, Nature, 2004, 430, 1024–1027.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Sijen, F. A. Steiner, K. L. Thijssen and R. H. A. Plasterk, Science, 2007, 315, 244–247.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O. Hersent, J.-P. Petit and D. Gurle, IP Telephony, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
J. Watson, K. Beswick and N. Brown, Eds., Educational Research and Professional Learning in Changing Times: The MARBLE Experience, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Orriols-Puig, J. Casillas and E. Bernadó-Mansilla, in Learning Classifier Systems: 10th International Workshop, IWLCS 2006, Seattle, MA, USA, July 8, 2006 and 11th International Workshop, IWLCS 2007, London, UK, July 8, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, eds. J. Bacardit, E. Bernadó-Mansilla, M. V. Butz, T. Kovacs, X. Llorà and K. Takadama, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008, pp. 57–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanoscale.

Blog post
E. Andrew, A Deadly, Mutating Wheat Fungus Is Spreading – Here’s How To Track It,, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Environmental Protection Agency: Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. A. Bennett, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. G. Stolberg and R. Nixon, New York Times, 2015, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoscale
ISSN (print)2040-3364
ISSN (online)2040-3372
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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