How to format your references using the Avian Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rakic, P. (2006). Neuroscience. No more cortical neurons for you. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313, 928–929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsodyks, M. & Gilbert, C. (2004). Neural networks and perceptual learning. Nature, 431, 775–781.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lam, F.H., Steger, D.J. & O’Shea, E.K. (2008). Chromatin decouples promoter threshold from dynamic range. Nature, 453, 246–250.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Liang, Y.-L., Khoshouei, M., Glukhova, A., Furness, S.G.B., Zhao, P., Clydesdale, L., Koole, C., Truong, T.T., Thal, D.M., Lei, S., Radjainia, M., Danev, R., Baumeister, W., Wang, M.-W., Miller, L.J., Christopoulos, A., Sexton, P.M. & Wootten, D. (2018). Phase-plate cryo-EM structure of a biased agonist-bound human GLP-1 receptor-Gs complex. Nature, 555, 121–125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieser, K.H. (2007). Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Feng, C. (2016). China’s Changing Legal System: Lawyers & Judges on Civil & Criminal Law. (L.P. Nelson & T.W. Simon, Eds.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Nandy, P. & Aminul Islam, M. (2010). Climate Resilient Coastal Zone Development in Bangladesh: Participatory Governance for Common Resources Management. In A.L. Ramanathan, P. Bhattacharya, T. Dittmar, M.B.K. Prasad & B.R. Neupane (Eds.), Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments (pp. 58–72). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Pathology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 17). Beautiful Image of Piqiang Fault Lines Wins NASA Photo Tournament. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Information Technology: Social Security Administration’s Data Exchanges Support Current Programs, but Better Planning Is Needed to Meet Future Demands ( No. GAO-09-966). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McConnell, M.E. (2017). A Dual Diagnosis of Hearing Loss and an Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Illustrative Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kepner, T. (2016, October 29). A 105-M.P.H. Fastball? Nice. What Else You Got? New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rakic, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Tsodyks & Gilbert, 2004; Rakic, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tsodyks & Gilbert, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Lam, Steger & O’Shea, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Pathology
AbbreviationAvian Pathol.
ISSN (print)0307-9457
ISSN (online)1465-3338
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Food Animals

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