How to format your references using the Avian Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flicek, P. (2010). Journal club. A computational geneticist looks at mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Nature, 463, 713.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jesson, L.K. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). Solving the puzzle of mirror-image flowers. Nature, 417, 707.
A journal article with 3 authors
Booth, L.N., Tuch, B.B. & Johnson, A.D. (2010). Intercalation of a new tier of transcription regulation into an ancient circuit. Nature, 468, 959–963.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Liu, B., Lin, B., Tan, X., Liang, J., Wu, S., Liu, J., Zhang, Q. & Zhu, R. (2014). A reduction in reactive oxygen species contributes to dihydromyricetin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Scientific reports, 4, 7041.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Renaud, B., Kim, K.-H. & Cho, M. (2016). Dynamics of Housing in East Asia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hyndman, K.A. & Pannabecker, T.L. (Eds.). (2015). Sodium and Water Homeostasis: Comparative, Evolutionary and Genetic Models. Physiology in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Trojanowski, K. & Wierzchoń, S.T. (2006). A Comparison of Clonal Selection Based Algorithms for Non-Stationary Optimisation Tasks. In M.A. Kłopotek, S.T. Wierzchoń & K. Trojanowski (Eds.), Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining: Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM’06 Conference held in Ustrón, Poland, June 19-22, 2006, Advances in Soft Computing (pp. 41–52). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Pathology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 8). Study Reveals How The Brains Of Criminal Psychopaths Are Wired. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Opportunities for Improving Computer Use in the Bureau of the Mint ( No. FGMSD-75-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blazer, A.E. (2003). “I Am Otherwise”: The Romance Between Poetry and Theory After the Death of the Subject (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, October 1). Selling Tea as Serenity, Not Snobbery. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flicek, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Jesson & Barrett, 2002; Flicek, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jesson & Barrett, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Booth, Tuch & Johnson, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Pathology
AbbreviationAvian Pathol.
ISSN (print)0307-9457
ISSN (online)1465-3338
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Food Animals

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