How to format your references using the Avian Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beal, M.F. (2010). Parkinson’s disease: a model dilemma. Nature, 466, S8-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennell, R. & Roebroeks, W. (2005). An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa. Nature, 438, 1099–1104.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loope, D.B., Rowe, C.M. & Joeckel, R.M. (2001). Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes. Nature, 412, 64–66.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Topál, J., Gergely, G., Miklósi, A., Erdohegyi, A. & Csibra, G. (2008). Infants’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321, 1831–1834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simpkins, C.A. & Simpkins, A.M. (2011). Zen Meditation in Psychotherapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Puig, L. (2013). Omnidirectional Vision Systems: Calibration, Feature Extraction and 3D Information. (J.J. Guerrero, Ed.)SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoki, K., Yamaki, M. & Fujimura, Y. (2008). Optical Control of Chiral Molecular Motors. In S.L. Chin, P. Agostini & G. Ferrante (Eds.), Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science III, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (pp. 93–112). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 30). Functional 3D Brain Tissue Successfully Grown From Stem Cells. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Space Station: NASA’s Software Development Approach Increases Safety and Cost Risks ( No. IMTEC-92-39). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koller, R.J. (2014). The nonlinear relationship of individual commitment to organizational change and behavioral support (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, February 12). A Plea for Robot Rights. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beal, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Dennell & Roebroeks, 2005; Beal, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dennell & Roebroeks, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Loope, Rowe & Joeckel, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Topál, Gergely, Miklósi, Erdohegyi & Csibra, 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Pathology
AbbreviationAvian Pathol.
ISSN (print)0307-9457
ISSN (online)1465-3338
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Food Animals

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