How to format your references using the NanoEthics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NanoEthics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fiset S (2010) Comment on “Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants.” Science 329:142; author reply 142
A journal article with 2 authors
Park E, Rapoport TA (2011) Preserving the membrane barrier for small molecules during bacterial protein translocation. Nature 473:239–242
A journal article with 3 authors
Baskin A, Sadeghpour HR, Král P (2014) Correlated diskoid-like electronic states. Sci Rep 4:5913
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yeung N, Lin Y-W, Gao Y-G, et al (2009) Rational design of a structural and functional nitric oxide reductase. Nature 462:1079–1082

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
James L (2014) Sustainability Footprints in SMEs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Grasser T (2014) Bias Temperature Instability for Devices and Circuits. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Nyström I, Olsson P, Nysjö J, et al (2016) Virtual Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery Planning with Stereo Graphics and Haptics. In: Ritacco LE, Milano FE, Chao E (eds) Computer-Assisted Musculoskeletal Surgery: Thinking and Executing in 3D. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 29–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NanoEthics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) John Oliver Does Science Communication Right. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Selected Information on Bypass of Local Telephone Companies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Binkley PM (2012) Relationship of Graduate Student Involvement to Graduate Alumni Donor Behavior. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bosman J, Harmon A (2017) Love of Music Drew Victims To a Fatal Trap. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoEthics
ISSN (print)1871-4757
ISSN (online)1871-4765
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
Management of Technology and Innovation
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles