How to format your references using the Nano Biomedicine and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Biomedicine and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heaven MC. Chemistry. Turn the molecule this way for a faster reaction. Science. 2013; 342(6154):46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
May M, Davis J. Preparing for the worst. Nature. 2006; 443(7114):907–908.
A journal article with 3 authors
Janetopoulos C, Jin T, Devreotes P. Receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins in living cells. Science. 2001; 291(5512):2408–2411.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mourka A, Mazilu M, Wright EM, Dholakia K. Modal characterization using principal component analysis: application to Bessel, higher-order Gaussian beams and their superposition. Sci. Rep. 2013; 3:1422.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane C. Magnolia. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Tortajada C, Altinbilek D, Biswas AK, editors. Impacts of Large Dams: A Global Assessment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Barazzetti L, Brumana R, Oreni D, Previtali M. Historical Map Registration via Independent Model Adjustment with Affine Transformations. In: Murgante B, Misra S, Rocha AMAC, Torre C, Rocha JG, Falcão MI, et al., editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2014: 14th International Conference, Guimarães, Portugal, June 30 – July 3, 2014, Proceedings, Part IV. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 44–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Biomedicine and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Build A City Fit For 50℃ Heatwaves [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Space Transportation: Industry Trends and Key Issues Affecting Federal Oversight and International Competitiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee Y-J. Copying and summarizing: Possible tools to develop English reading and writing for university students of different proficiency levels in Korea. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. The Facts Win Out on Abortion. New York Times. 2016; :A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Biomedicine and Engineering
AbbreviationNano Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (online)2150-5578
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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