How to format your references using the mSphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for mSphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Stevenson PA. 2009. Ecology. The key to Pandora’s box. Science 323:594–595.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Feizi A, Bordel S. 2013. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival. Sci Rep 3:3041.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Shi Y, Evans JE, Rock KL. 2003. Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells. Nature 425:516–521.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Michel LS, Liberal V, Chatterjee A, Kirchwegger R, Pasche B, Gerald W, Dobles M, Sorger PK, Murty VV, Benezra R. 2001. MAD2 haplo-insufficiency causes premature anaphase and chromosome instability in mammalian cells. Nature 409:355–359.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Samonas M. 2015. Financial Forecasting, Analysis, and Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
1.
2012. Caveolins and Caveolae: Roles in Signaling and Disease Mechanisms. Springer US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Calafiore GC, Carlone L, Dellaert F. 2016. Lagrangian Duality in Complex Pose Graph Optimization, p. 139–184. In Goldengorin, B (ed.), Optimization and Its Applications in Control and Data Sciences: In Honor of Boris T. Polyak’s 80th Birthday. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for mSphere.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. 2015. Symbiotic Partnership Between Monkeys and Wolves Discovered. IFLScience. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Highway Trust Fund Obligations, Fiscal Years 2009 to 2011. GAO-13-193R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Augeri JE. 2015. Supportive Services for Homeless Veteran Women: Policy Implementation and Discretionary Practices of Those at the Front-Lines of Public Service. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. 2002. I Say Yip-Yip, You Say Ruff-Ruff: Small Dogs Lobby for Own Dog Run. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlemSphere
AbbreviationmSphere
ISSN (online)2379-5042
Scope

Other styles