How to format your references using the Molecular Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norman, C. (2012) 2011 International Science & Engineering Visualization Challenge. Science 335: 525–535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hinde, K., and Lewis, Z.T. (2015) MICROBIOTA. Mother’s littlest helpers. Science 348: 1427–1428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sahu, G., Sukumaran, S., and Bera, A.K. (2014) Pannexins form gap junctions with electrophysiological and pharmacological properties distinct from connexins. Sci Rep 4: 4955.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hashimoto, A., Suenaga, K., Gloter, A., Urita, K., and Iijima, S. (2004) Direct evidence for atomic defects in graphene layers. Nature 430: 870–873.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fan, J. (2010) Multiscale Analysis of Deformation and Failure of Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Cai, Z., Li, Z., Kang, Z., and Liu, Y. (eds) (2009) Advances in Computation and Intelligence: 4th International Symposium, ISICA 2009 Huangshi, China, Ocotober 23-25, 2009 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dorn, M., Breda, A., and Norberto de Souza, O. (2008) A Hybrid Method for the Protein Structure Prediction Problem. In Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Third Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2008, Santo André, Brazil, August 28-30, 2008. Proceedings. Bazzan, A.L.C., Craven, M., and Martins, N.F. (eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Self-Building 3D Printed Bricks Hint At Future Without Assembly Lines. IFLScience Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Electronic Government: Government Paperwork Elimination Act Presents Challenges for Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khaleghi, F.K. (2017) Evaluating Satisfaction of Participants within the Outreach and Engagement Program of MECCA. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy, S. (2014) Who’s That (Cool) Girl? New York Times E11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norman, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Norman, 2012; Hinde and Lewis, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hinde and Lewis, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hashimoto et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Microbiology
AbbreviationMol. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0950-382X
ISSN (online)1365-2958
ScopeMolecular Biology

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