How to format your references using the Molecular Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ploegh, H. (2011) End the wasteful tyranny of reviewer experiments. Nature 472: 391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tewksbury, J.J., and Nabhan, G.P. (2001) Seed dispersal. Directed deterrence by capsaicin in chilies. Nature 412: 403–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, S.-C., Lo, Y.-C., and Wu, H. (2010) Helical assembly in the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex in TLR/IL-1R signalling. Nature 465: 885–890.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Colomer-de-Simón, P., Serrano, M.Á., Beiró, M.G., Alvarez-Hamelin, J.I., and Boguñá, M. (2013) Deciphering the global organization of clustering in real complex networks. Sci Rep 3: 2517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abutarbush, S.M. (2015) Illustrated Guide to Equine Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, Iowa, USA.
An edited book
Feng, Z. (2015) Cognitive Wireless Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Supriya, Siuly, Wang, H., Zhuo, G., and Zhang, Y. (2016) Analyzing EEG Signal Data for Detection of Epileptic Seizure: Introducing Weight on Visibility Graph with Complex Network Feature. In Databases Theory and Applications: 27th Australasian Database Conference, ADC 2016, Sydney, NSW, September 28-29, 2016, Proceedings. Cheema, M.A., Zhang, W., and Chang, L. (eds). Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 56–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Microbiology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016) How Realistic Is It To Ask Someone To “Cry A River”? IFLScience Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Army Battlefield Automation: Oversight Needed to Assure Integrated System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kapatsinski, V. (2009) The architecture of grammar in artificial grammar learning: Formal biases in the acquisition of morphophonology and the nature of the learning task. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schlossberg, T., and Schwartz, J. (2017) A Bumblebee Gets New Protection on Obama’s Way Out. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ploegh, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Tewksbury and Nabhan, 2001; Ploegh, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tewksbury and Nabhan, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Colomer-de-Simón et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Microbiology
AbbreviationMol. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0950-382X
ISSN (online)1365-2958
ScopeMolecular Biology

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