How to format your references using the Molecular Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder, N. (2000) UK discussed ban on foreign job ads in 1960s. Nature 403: 121.
A journal article with 2 authors
Louf, R., and Barthelemy, M. (2014) How congestion shapes cities: from mobility patterns to scaling. Sci Rep 4: 5561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooks, C.L., 3rd, Onuchic, J.N., and Wales, D.J. (2001) Statistical thermodynamics. Taking a walk on a landscape. Science 293: 612–613.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Girardi, M., Oppenheim, D.E., Steele, C.R., Lewis, J.M., Glusac, E., Filler, R., et al. (2001) Regulation of cutaneous malignancy by gammadelta T cells. Science 294: 605–609.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ollivier, J.-P., Torrenti, J.-M., and Carcassès, M. (2012) Physical Properties of Concrete and Concrete Constituents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Águeda Marujo, H., and Neto, L.M. (eds) (2014) Positive Nations and Communities: Collective, Qualitative and Cultural-Sensitive Processes in Positive Psychology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Mas, A.C., Nethsinghe, R., and Forrest, D. (2016) The Arts within a Sustainable Educational Agenda. In Global Learning in the 21st Century. Barkatsas, T., and Bertram, A. (eds). SensePublishers, Rotterdam. pp. 71–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Microbiology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016) Psychopaths Probably Do Experience Fear But May Be Unable To Sense Danger. IFLScience Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) JFMIP: Acquisition/Financial Systems Interface Requirements (Exposure Draft). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna, D. (2014) Preventing obesity among foster youth through nutrition and outdoor activities: A grant proposal. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017) Wheeler’s Solid Start Helps Mets Win. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Loder, 2000; Louf and Barthelemy, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Louf and Barthelemy, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Girardi et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Microbiology
AbbreviationMol. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0950-382X
ISSN (online)1365-2958
ScopeMolecular Biology

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