How to format your references using the Minerals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schlessinger, J. Signal Transduction. Autoinhibition Control. Science 2003, 300, 750–752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cobey, S.; Lipsitch, M. Niche and Neutral Effects of Acquired Immunity Permit Coexistence of Pneumococcal Serotypes. Science 2012, 335, 1376–1380.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ting, J.P.Y.; Duncan, J.A.; Lei, Y. How the Noninflammasome NLRs Function in the Innate Immune System. Science 2010, 327, 286–290.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, Q.; Graham, T.E.; Mody, N.; Preitner, F.; Peroni, O.D.; Zabolotny, J.M.; Kotani, K.; Quadro, L.; Kahn, B.B. Serum Retinol Binding Protein 4 Contributes to Insulin Resistance in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Nature 2005, 436, 356–362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dye, F.J. Dictionary of Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine, and Translational Medicine; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2017; ISBN 9781118867785.
An edited book
Alepis, E. Object-Oriented User Interfaces for Personalized Mobile Learning; Virvou, M., Ed.; Intelligent Systems Reference Library; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; Vol. 64; ISBN 9783642538506.
A chapter in an edited book
Wolf, U.; Wiezorek, T. Radiophysical Principles. In Radiotherapy for Non-Malignant Disorders; Seegenschmiedt, M.H., Makoski, H.-B., Trott, K.-R., Brady, L.W., Eds.; Medical Radiology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 59–87 ISBN 9783540625506.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerals.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Biopolymer “Wrapping Paper” Heals Broken Bones More Quickly and Completely Available online:“wrapping-paper”-heals-broken-bones-more-quickly-and-completely/ (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Should the Bureau of Indian Affairs Continue To Provide Educational Services to Indian Children?; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nixon, H.A. Defining Principals: The Seen and the Unseen. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards Five and Six. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.; Cooper, M. Faltering City Testing Its Vow To Pensioners. New York Times 2011, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerals
AbbreviationMinerals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-163X

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