How to format your references using the Minerals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles, S. Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science 2006, 314, 1569–1572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, C.R.; Baker, L.A. Materials science. Expanding the molecular electronics toolbox. Science 2005, 309, 67–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seibel, B.A.; Robison, B.H.; Haddock, S.H.D. Post-spawning egg care by a squid. Nature 2005, 438, 929.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tritsch, N.X.; Yi, E.; Gale, J.E.; Glowatzki, E.; Bergles, D.E. The origin of spontaneous activity in the developing auditory system. Nature 2007, 450, 50–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant, G.; Broniatowski, M. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 1; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119292272.
An edited book
Cooperstock, F.I. Einstein’s Relativity: The Ultimate Key to the Cosmos; Tieu, S., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642303845.
A chapter in an edited book
Goeman, J.J. Randomness and the Games of Science. In The Challenge of Chance: A Multidisciplinary Approach from Science and the Humanities; Landsman, K., van Wolde, E., Eds.; The Frontiers Collection; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 91–109 ISBN 9783319262987.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerals.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Scientists Can’t Work Out Why The Radius Of A Proton Keeps Changing In Experiments Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Propriety of Payment of Transportation and Travel Expenses; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1973;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Churney, K. Drawing and multimodality communication training as an effective treatment option for individuals with nonfluent aphasia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davis, J.H.; Rosenberg, M. Even Defining Victory in Afghanistan Is Hard. New York Times 2017, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerals
AbbreviationMinerals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-163X

Other styles