How to format your references using the Minerals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morell, V. When the Bat Sings. Science 2014, 344, 1334–1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiong, Y.; Steitz, T.A. Mechanism of Transfer RNA Maturation by CCA-Adding Enzyme without Using an Oligonucleotide Template. Nature 2004, 430, 640–645.
A journal article with 3 authors
de Jong, P.W.; van Lenteren, J.C.; Raak-van den Berg, C.L. Comment on “Invasive Harlequin Ladybird Carries Biological Weapons against Native Competitors.” Science 2013, 341, 1342.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takahashi, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ihara, R.; Fujiwara, T. Parasitic Amorphous on Single-Domain Crystal: Structural Observations of Silicate Glass-Ceramics. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guinot, V. Wave Propagation in Fluids; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118558034.
An edited book
Fiengo, G. Common Rail System for GDI Engines: Modelling, Identification, and Control; di Gaeta, A., Palladino, A., Giglio, V., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering; Springer: London, 2013; ISBN 9781447144670.
A chapter in an edited book
Gauthier, J.-A.; Widmer, E.D. The Destruction of Multiethnic Locations: Markers of Identity and the Determinants of Residential Trajectories. In War, Community, and Social Change: Collective Experiences in the Former Yugoslavia; Spini, D., Elcheroth, G., Corkalo Biruski, D., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 85–98 ISBN 9781461474906.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerals.

Blog post
Evans, K. “The Hare Psychopathy Checklist”: The Test That Will Tell You If Someone Is A Sociopath Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Student Financial Aid Systems: Absence of Guiding Architecture Reduces Efficiency, Ease of Use; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schreiber, J.S. Discursive Constructions of Decline: Narratives of Illness and Financial Stress among Residents in Assisted Living. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Look Back. New York Times 2015, C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerals
AbbreviationMinerals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-163X

Other styles