How to format your references using the Minerals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Shea, J.N. Applied Physics. Enhanced: Molecular Orbitals Tell the Story. Science 2005, 310, 453–454.
A journal article with 2 authors
Curtis, T.P.; Sloan, W.T. Microbiology. Exploring Microbial Diversity--a Vast Below. Science 2005, 309, 1331–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wohlgemuth, S.; Ronacher, B.; Wehner, R. Ant Odometry in the Third Dimension. Nature 2001, 411, 795–798.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Levin, V.; Shapiro, N.; Park, J.; Ritzwoller, M. Seismic Evidence for Catastrophic Slab Loss beneath Kamchatka. Nature 2002, 418, 763–767.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saunders, A.; Allen, L. Credit Risk Management in and Out of the Financial Crisis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118267981.
An edited book
Mapping Spatial Relations, Their Perceptions and Dynamics: The City Today and in the Past; Rau, S., Schönherr, E., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319009926.
A chapter in an edited book
Liang, B.; Chen, C.; Guan, Y.-H.; Huang, X.-Y. Estimating the Missing Traffic Speeds via Continuous Conditional Random Fields. In Web Technologies and Applications: APWeb 2015 Workshops, BSD, WDMA, and BDAT, Guangzhou, China, September 18, 2015, Revised Selected Papers; Cai, R., Chen, K., Hong, L., Yang, X., Zhang, R., Zou, L., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 35–43 ISBN 9783319281209.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerals.

Blog post
Davis, J. Researchers Discover How Bees Naturally “Vaccinate” Their Young (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Superconducting Super Collider Cost and Schedule; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rakusin, L.L. Intervening to Reduce Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B. Federal Judge Halts Legal Challenges in Detroit Bankruptcy Case. New York Times 2013, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerals
AbbreviationMinerals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-163X

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