How to format your references using the Minerals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Craik, D.J. Chemistry. Seamless Proteins Tie up Their Loose Ends. Science 2006, 311, 1563–1564.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsiao, J.C.; Fong, K. Making Big Money from Small Technology. Nature 2004, 428, 218–220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huber, G.W.; Shabaker, J.W.; Dumesic, J.A. Raney Ni-Sn Catalyst for H2 Production from Biomass-Derived Hydrocarbons. Science 2003, 300, 2075–2077.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yi, S.; Huang, Z.; Huang, J.; Fang, M.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S. Novel Calcium Hexaluminate/Spinel-Alumina Composites with Graded Microstructures and Mechanical Properties. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasher, E.; Ronen, T. The Complete Guide to Knowledge Management; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118983782.
An edited book
Niederhuber, J.E. Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices: Management in Mid- and Long-Term Clinical Setting; Carlo, I.D., Biffi, R., Eds.; Springer: Milano, 2012; ISBN 9788847023727.
A chapter in an edited book
Petkov, P. Electrode-Limited Currents in Thin Ternary Chalcogenide Films. In Functional Properties of Nanostructured Materials; Kassing, R., Petkov, P., Kulisch, W., Popov, C., Eds.; Nato Science Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; pp. 57–72 ISBN 9781402045950.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerals.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Most Antidepressant Medications Don’t Work For Children And Teens, Claims Study Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office School Dropouts: The Extent and Nature of the Problem; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moon, M.M. The Needs of Korean-American and Korean Families of Children with Disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M.S. Trump Appears Unlikely to Hinder Comey’s Testimony About Russia Investigation. New York Times 2017, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerals
AbbreviationMinerals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-163X

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