How to format your references using the Minerals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, S. Fact and fantasy. The zoology created by our imagination is far outstripped by that of reality. Nature 2002, 415, 479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dulvy, N.K.; Kindsvater, H.K. Ecology: Recovering the potential of coral reefs. Nature 2015, 520, 304–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida, M.-A.; Yura, K.; Ogura, A. Cephalopod eye evolution was modulated by the acquisition of Pax-6 splicing variants. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4256.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Manoli, D.S.; Foss, M.; Villella, A.; Taylor, B.J.; Hall, J.C.; Baker, B.S. Male-specific fruitless specifies the neural substrates of Drosophila courtship behaviour. Nature 2005, 436, 395–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Poikselkä, M.; Mayer, G.; Khartabil, H.; Niemi, A. The IMS; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2004; ISBN 9780470871157.
An edited book
Intelligent Environmental Sensing; Leung, H., Chandra Mukhopadhyay, S., Eds.; Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 13; ISBN 9783319128917.
A chapter in an edited book
Adams, J.C.; Brainerd, W.S.; Hendrickson, R.A.; Maine, R.E.; Martin, J.T.; Smith, B.T. Declarations. In The Fortran 2003 Handbook: The Complete Syntax, Features and Procedures; Brainerd, W.S., Hendrickson, R.A., Maine, R.E., Martin, J.T., Smith, B.T., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; pp. 115–169 ISBN 9781846283789.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerals.

Blog post
Davis, J. New Zealand Parrot Found To Display Contagious “Laughter” (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Safety: Commuter Airports Should Participate in the Airport Certification Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kay, K. A support group for older adult males struggling with depression: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tierney, J. Easy Ways to Mend Your Marriage. New York Times 2017, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerals
AbbreviationMinerals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-163X

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