How to format your references using the Midwifery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Midwifery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peng, X., 2011. China’s demographic history and future challenges. Science 333, 581–587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keightley, P.D., Otto, S.P., 2006. Interference among deleterious mutations favours sex and recombination in finite populations. Nature 443, 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hafed, Z.M., Goffart, L., Krauzlis, R.J., 2009. A neural mechanism for microsaccade generation in the primate superior colliculus. Science 323, 940–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bogan, J.S., Hendon, N., McKee, A.E., Tsao, T.-S., Lodish, H.F., 2003. Functional cloning of TUG as a regulator of GLUT4 glucose transporter trafficking. Nature 425, 727–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen, C., 2013. Business Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Thaung, K.S. (Ed.), 2012. Advanced Information Technology in Education, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rauschmayr, N., Streit, A., 2013. Reducing the Memory Footprint of Parallel Applications with KSM, in: Keller, R., Kramer, D., Weiss, J.-P. (Eds.), Facing the Multicore-Challenge III: Aspects of New Paradigms and Technologies in Parallel Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 48–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Midwifery.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Increase In Gun Deaths Linked To “Stand Your Ground” Law In Florida [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Federal Student Aid: Expanding Eligibility for Less Than Halftime Students Could Increase Program Costs, But Benefits Uncertain (No. GAO-03-905). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adelman, S.W., 2009. Early childhood nutritional responses to targeted food aid and social network disruptions in Ugandan internally displaced person’s camps (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Knight, M., 2013. Ms. Ubiquity. New York Times MM32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peng, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Keightley and Otto, 2006; Peng, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keightley and Otto, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bogan et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMidwifery
ISSN (print)0266-6138
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternity and Midwifery

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