How to format your references using the Midwifery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Midwifery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M., 2010. Cellular imaging: Taking a long, hard look. Nature 466, 1137–1140.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zucker, A.A., Light, D., 2009. Laptop programs for students. Science 323, 82–85.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, Y.-Y., Bagrow, J.P., Lehmann, S., 2010. Link communities reveal multiscale complexity in networks. Nature 466, 761–764.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, H., Lim, H.-D., Kim, S.-W., Hong, J., Seo, D.-H., Kim, D.-C., Jeon, S., Park, S., Kang, K., 2013. Scalable functionalized graphene nano-platelets as tunable cathodes for high-performance lithium rechargeable batteries. Sci. Rep. 3, 1506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Passarelli, D., 2012. Trading Options Greeks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brumme, R., Khanna, P.K. (Eds.), 2009. Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems, Ecological Studies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ito, M., Kari, L., Kincaid, Z., Seki, S., 2009. Duplication in DNA Sequences, in: Condon, A., Harel, D., Kok, J.N., Salomaa, A., Winfree, E. (Eds.), Algorithmic Bioprocesses, Natural Computing Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Midwifery.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Discovered In Rio de Janeiro Waterways Ahead Of Olymics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Transportation Security: Additional Actions Could Strengthen the Security of Intermodal Transportation Facilities (No. GAO-10-435R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coffman, M.W., 2015. A National Study of the Relationship between Home Access to a Computer and Academic Performance Scores of Grade 12 U.S. Science Students: An Analysis of the 2009 NAEP Data (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2016. Evacuation Ends, Leaving Aleppo in Government Hands. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2010; Zucker and Light, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zucker and Light, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMidwifery
ISSN (print)0266-6138
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternity and Midwifery

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