How to format your references using the Midwifery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Midwifery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R., 2001. Action urged to combat killer algae. Nature 412, 260.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balois, T., Ben Amar, M., 2014. Morphology of melanocytic lesions in situ. Sci. Rep. 4, 3622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkelstein, I.J., Visnapuu, M.-L., Greene, E.C., 2010. Single-molecule imaging reveals mechanisms of protein disruption by a DNA translocase. Nature 468, 983–987.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barthelemy, M., Bordin, P., Berestycki, H., Gribaudi, M., 2013. Self-organization versus top-down planning in the evolution of a city. Sci. Rep. 3, 2153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu, J., 2013. Way of the Trade. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Perner, P., Imiya, A. (Eds.), 2005. Machine Learning and Data Mining in Pattern Recognition: 4th International Conference, MLDM 2005, Leipzig, Germany, July 9-11, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sym, S.D., 2015. Basal Lineages of Green Algae – Their Diversity and Phylogeny, in: Ohtsuka, S., Suzaki, T., Horiguchi, T., Suzuki, N., Not, F. (Eds.), Marine Protists: Diversity and Dynamics. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 89–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Midwifery.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Brown Bears Enjoy Oral Sex [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/brown-bears-enjoy-oral-sex/ (accessed 10.30.18).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Information Technology: Department of Labor Could Further Facilitate Modernization of States’ Unemployment Insurance Systems (No. GAO-12-957). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Minger, L., 2017. Examining Education Leadership Communication Practices around Basic and Advanced Skill Sets: A Multiple Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Victor, D., 2017. Dismissed Breitbart Editor Blames Anti-Muslim Tweets. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Balois and Ben Amar, 2014; Dalton, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Balois and Ben Amar, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Barthelemy et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMidwifery
AbbreviationMidwifery
ISSN (print)0266-6138
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternity and Midwifery

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