How to format your references using the Midwifery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Midwifery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corliss, J., 2012. Exercise: Powering up. Nature 485, S62-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson, B.E., McInerney, M.J., 2002. Anaerobic microbial metabolism can proceed close to thermodynamic limits. Nature 415, 454–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thitamadee, S., Tuchihara, K., Hashimoto, T., 2002. Microtubule basis for left-handed helical growth in Arabidopsis. Nature 417, 193–196.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wollmann, P., Cui, S., Viswanathan, R., Berninghausen, O., Wells, M.N., Moldt, M., Witte, G., Butryn, A., Wendler, P., Beckmann, R., Auble, D.T., Hopfner, K.-P., 2011. Structure and mechanism of the Swi2/Snf2 remodeller Mot1 in complex with its substrate TBP. Nature 475, 403–407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner, D., Balog, E., 2012. Advanced Technical Analysis of ETFs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Caner, A., Gülkan, P., Mahmoud, K. (Eds.), 2016. Developments in International Bridge Engineering: Selected Papers from Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Springer Tracts on Transportation and Traffic. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Richardson, H.W., Pan, Q., Gordon, P., Moore, J.E., Park, J., Ngyuen, C., 2015. A Bomb Attack on a Shopping Mall, in: Richardson, H.W., Pan, Q., Park, J., Moore, J.E., II (Eds.), Regional Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters and Metropolitan Policies, Advances in Spatial Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 87–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Midwifery.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Are These The Earliest Animal Ancestors? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Better Address Port Cybersecurity (No. GAO-14-459). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bacus, M., 2015. Disturb the Morning (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2013. Olympic Leaders Mend U.S. Ties With the I.O.C. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Corliss, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Corliss, 2012; Jackson and McInerney, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jackson and McInerney, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wollmann et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMidwifery
ISSN (print)0266-6138
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Maternity and Midwifery

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