How to format your references using the Microbiology Australia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbiology Australia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Khodakhah, K. (2015) Neuroscience: Decrypting a brain enigma. Nature 526, 326–327
A journal article with 2 authors
Knutson, B.A. and Hahn, S. (2011) Yeast Rrn7 and human TAF1B are TFIIB-related RNA polymerase I general transcription factors. Science 333, 1637–1640
A journal article with 3 authors
Glaser, A. et al. (2015) NUCLEAR SECURITY. After the Iran deal: Multinational enrichment. Science 348, 1320–1322
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Parmentier, E. et al. (2007) Sound production in the clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Science 316, 1006

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas, A. (2012) Case Histories in Vibration Analysis and Metal Fatigue for the Practicing Engineer, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Howell, F.M. et al., eds. (2016) Recapturing Space: New Middle-Range Theory in Spatial Demography, 1st ed. 2016., 1Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gandhi, A. and Gandhi, A. (2016) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Pregnant Woman. In Principles of Critical Care in Obstetrics: Volume I (Gandhi, A. et al., eds), pp. 35–47, Springer India

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbiology Australia.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 28-Oct-(2015) , How Clean Is The International Space Station? , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Financial Management Systems: HUD Needs to Address Management and Governance Weaknesses That Jeopardize Its Modernization Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunn, L.K. (2017) , Hiring manager’s consideration process for ex-offender job applicants: A grounded theory study. , Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alvarez, L. 09-Jan-(2017) , Pandemonium Followed Rumor of Second Airport Attacker. , New York Times, A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobiology Australia
AbbreviationMicrobiol. Aust.
ISSN (print)1324-4272

Other styles