How to format your references using the Microarrays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microarrays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tal, A. Seeking Sustainability: Israel’s Evolving Water Management Strategy. Science 2006, 313, 1081–1084.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldfine, H.; Vance, D.E. Obituary: Konrad E. Bloch (1912-2000). Nature 2001, 409, 779.
A journal article with 3 authors
Azzam, N.A.; Hallenbeck, J.M.; Kachar, B. Membrane Changes during Hibernation. Nature 2000, 407, 317–318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bomati, E.K.; Haley, J.E.; Noel, J.P.; Deheyn, D.D. Spectral and Structural Comparison between Bright and Dim Green Fluorescent Proteins in Amphioxus. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Menn, M. Instrumentation and Metrology in Oceanography; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118561959.
An edited book
Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children III; Pollard, A.J., Finn, A., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; Vol. 582; ISBN 9780387317830.
A chapter in an edited book
Eberhard, P.; Tang, Q. Sensor Data Fusion for the Localization and Position Control of One Kind of Omnidirectional Mobile Robots. In Multibody System Dynamics, Robotics and Control; Gattringer, H., Gerstmayr, J., Eds.; Springer: Vienna, 2013; pp. 45–73 ISBN 9783709112885.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microarrays.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Do We Really Need Oxygen For Complex Life? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Initial Expenditure Plan; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Myers, R.E. Moderating the Effectiveness of Messages to Promote Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lipton, E.; Protess, B.; Lehren, A.W. Raft of Potential Conflicts In President’s Appointees. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroarrays
AbbreviationMicroarrays (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3905

Other styles