How to format your references using the Microarrays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microarrays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aftergood, S. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Polygraph Testing and the DOE National Laboratories. Science 2000, 290, 939–940.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalinin, S.V.; Spaldin, N.A. Materials Science. Functional Ion Defects in Transition Metal Oxides. Science 2013, 341, 858–859.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gess, R.W.; Coates, M.I.; Rubidge, B.S. A Lamprey from the Devonian Period of South Africa. Nature 2006, 443, 981–984.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Whitham, T.G.; Difazio, S.P.; Schweitzer, J.A.; Shuster, S.M.; Allan, G.J.; Bailey, J.K.; Woolbright, S.A. Extending Genomics to Natural Communities and Ecosystems. Science 2008, 320, 492–495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simmons, M.; Dalgleish, E. Corporate Actions; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2006; ISBN 9781118673454.
An edited book
Bichitra: The Making of an Online Tagore Variorum; Chaudhuri, S., Ed.; Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319236773.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Y.; Liatsis, P. An Automated System for 3D Segmentation of CT Angiograms. In Visual Computing: Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems; Rodrigues Leta, F., Ed.; Augmented Vision and Reality; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 99–119 ISBN 9783642551307.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microarrays.

Blog post
Luntz, S. The Chemistry of Pizza Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office DOD and VA: Systematic Data Sharing Would Help Expedite Servicemembers’ Transition to VA Services; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaplan, C.M. Understanding the Anxiolytic Effects of Alcohol on the Central Extended Amygdala in Humans. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Races End Fees to Top Runners, Drawing Outcry. New York Times 2013, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroarrays
AbbreviationMicroarrays (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3905

Other styles