How to format your references using the Microarrays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microarrays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cruikshank, D.P. Planetary Science. Generating an Atmosphere. Science 2010, 330, 1755–1756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pons, A.J.; Karma, A. Helical Crack-Front Instability in Mixed-Mode Fracture. Nature 2010, 464, 85–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, H.; Westhof, E.; Johansen, S. An MRNA Is Capped by a 2’, 5’ Lariat Catalyzed by a Group I-like Ribozyme. Science 2005, 309, 1584–1587.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Doron-Mor, I., I.; Hatzor, A.; Vaskevich, A.; van der Boom-Moav T; Shanzer, A.; Rubinstein, I., I.; Cohen, H. Controlled Surface Charging as a Depth-Profiling Probe for Mesoscopic Layers. Nature 2000, 406, 382–385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Medhurst, D. A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law; Blackwell Science Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470690338.
An edited book
Geographies of Global Issues: Change and Threat; Ansell, N., Klocker, N., Skelton, T., Eds.; Geographies of Children and Young People; Springer: Singapore, 2016; Vol. 8; ISBN 9789814585538.
A chapter in an edited book
Namy, O.; Rousset, J.-P. Specification of Standard Amino Acids by Stop Codons. In Recoding: Expansion of Decoding Rules Enriches Gene Expression; Atkins, J.F., Gesteland, R.F., Eds.; Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; pp. 79–100 ISBN 9780387893815.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microarrays.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Shark Attacks Are So Unlikely, But So Fascinating Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Improvements in Certain District of Columbia Public Schools’ Administrative Operations; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1983;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, P.L. Advancing Electroanalytical Methods for Monitoring Chemical Messenger Release. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. Skipping the French Open Is a Strategy That Fits a Unique Player. New York Times 2017, B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroarrays
AbbreviationMicroarrays (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3905

Other styles