How to format your references using the Microarrays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microarrays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pielke, R.A., Sr Atmospheric science. Land use and climate change. Science 2005, 310, 1625–1626.
A journal article with 2 authors
Makse, H.A.; Kurchan, J. Testing the thermodynamic approach to granular matter with a numerical model of a decisive experiment. Nature 2002, 415, 614–617.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moynier, F.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Schauble, E. Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth’s core. Science 2011, 331, 1417–1420.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sakuma, T.; Nishikawa, A.; Kume, S.; Chayama, K.; Yamamoto, T. Multiplex genome engineering in human cells using all-in-one CRISPR/Cas9 vector system. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Utsuro, M.; Ignatovich, V.K. Handbook of Neutron Optics; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2010; ISBN 9783527628780.
An edited book
Law and Agroecology: A Transdisciplinary Dialogue; Monteduro, M., Buongiorno, P., Di Benedetto, S., Isoni, A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; ISBN 9783662466162.
A chapter in an edited book
Cañada, A.; Villegas, S. Systems of Equations. In A Variational Approach to Lyapunov Type Inequalities: From ODEs to PDEs; Villegas, S., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 95–118 ISBN 9783319252872.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microarrays.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Samsung Unveils “See-Through” Safety Trucks (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office VA Education Benefits: VA Needs to Improve Program Management and Provide More Timely Information to Students; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duggimpudi, M.B. Object Ranking Algorithms for Improved Decision Making. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. A Subatomic Existential Crisis. New York Times 2015, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroarrays
AbbreviationMicroarrays (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3905

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