How to format your references using the Microarrays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microarrays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crabtree, R.H. Chemistry. No protection required. Science 2007, 318, 756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Everitt, B.J. Drug seeking becomes compulsive after prolonged cocaine self-administration. Science 2004, 305, 1017–1019.
A journal article with 3 authors
Munday, J.N.; Capasso, F.; Parsegian, V.A. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces. Nature 2009, 457, 170–173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tian, J.; Gong, H.; Sheng, N.; Zhou, X.; Gulari, E.; Gao, X.; Church, G. Accurate multiplex gene synthesis from programmable DNA microchips. Nature 2004, 432, 1050–1054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, R.C. The Hedge Fund Book; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118266465.
An edited book
Digital Image Forensics: There is More to a Picture than Meets the Eye; Sencar, H.T., Memon, N., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461407560.
A chapter in an edited book
Yousaf, J.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Hou, L. Exploration and Visualization of Administrator Network in Wikipedia. In Web Technologies and Applications: 14th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2012, Kunming, China, April 11-13, 2012. Proceedings; Sheng, Q.Z., Wang, G., Jensen, C.S., Xu, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 46–59 ISBN 9783642292521.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microarrays.

Blog post
Hale, T. New Radar Scan Says Tutankhamun’s Tomb Has No Hidden Chamber Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Education Funding: Overview of K-12 and Early Childhood Education Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakayama, M. Educational Advocacy for Children in Foster Care: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hogan, S. How I Found Love and Companionship Online. New York Times 2013, ST12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroarrays
AbbreviationMicroarrays (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3905

Other styles