How to format your references using the Metabolic Brain Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Brain Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Switzer JA (2012) Chemistry. Atomic layer electrodeposition. Science 338:1300–1301
A journal article with 2 authors
del Giorgio PA, Duarte CM (2002) Respiration in the open ocean. Nature 420:379–384
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann DL, Sutter RW, Aylward RB (2005) A global call for new polio vaccines. Nature 434:699–700
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gurtner GC, Werner S, Barrandon Y, Longaker MT (2008) Wound repair and regeneration. Nature 453:314–321

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fuller S (2005) RapidIO®: The Embedded System Interconnect. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Li H-X (2011) Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Nonlinear Distributed Parameter Systems: A Time/Space Separation Based Approach. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Almeida J, Rodaro E (2014) Semisimple Synchronizing Automata and the Wedderburn-Artin Theory. In: Shur AM, Volkov MV (eds) Developments in Language Theory: 18th International Conference, DLT 2014, Ekaterinburg, Russia, August 26-29, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 49–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Brain Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Jimmy Kimmel Asks Anti-GMO People What A “GMO” Is. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Air Traffic Control: Advanced Automation System Problems Need To Be Addressed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Regmi K (2015) Computer Vision and Image Processing Toolbox for MATLAB. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2004) The Region, a Primer. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Switzer 2012).
This sentence cites two references (del Giorgio and Duarte 2002; Switzer 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (del Giorgio and Duarte 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Gurtner et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Brain Disease
AbbreviationMetab. Brain Dis.
ISSN (print)0885-7490
ISSN (online)1573-7365
Clinical Neurology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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