How to format your references using the Metabolic Brain Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Brain Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C (2010) World view: Wild goose chase. Nature 463:291
A journal article with 2 authors
Stolinsky DC, Rubinstein E (2000) Science’s Conversation with Jiang Zemin. Science 289:548–549
A journal article with 3 authors
Tosi L, Teatini P, Strozzi T (2013) Natural versus anthropogenic subsidence of Venice. Sci Rep 3:2710
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Meyzen CM, Blichert-Toft J, Ludden JN, et al (2007) Isotopic portrayal of the Earth’s upper mantle flow field. Nature 447:1069–1074

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaisford S, Saunders M (2012) Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Dau F, Mugnier M-L, Stumme G (eds) (2005) Conceptual Structures: Common Semantics for Sharing Knowledge: 13th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2005, Kassel, Germany, July 17-22, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Reymen I, Romme G (2009) The Evolution of Design Requirements in the Trajectory of Artificiality: A Research Agenda. In: Lyytinen K, Loucopoulos P, Mylopoulos J, Robinson B (eds) Design Requirements Engineering: A Ten-Year Perspective: Design Requirements Workshop, Cleveland, OH, USA, June 3-6, 2007, Revised and Invited Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 91–102

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Brain Disease.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) The Best Close-Up Picture Of Pluto From New Horizons Yet. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Information Technology: Leadership Remains Key to Agencies Making Progress on Enterprise Architecture Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morikawa T (2010) Aerodynamic analysis of an over-the-wing engine-mount aircraft. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina I (2015) A Renegade Trawler, Chased by Eco-Vigilantes. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Stolinsky and Rubinstein 2000; Macilwain 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stolinsky and Rubinstein 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Meyzen et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Brain Disease
AbbreviationMetab. Brain Dis.
ISSN (print)0885-7490
ISSN (online)1573-7365
Clinical Neurology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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