How to format your references using the Metabolic Brain Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Brain Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Curran DP (2008) Chemistry. Fluorous tags unstick messy chemical biology problems. Science 321:1645–1646
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown S, Zarin D (2013) Environmental science. What does zero deforestation mean? Science 342:805–807
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexander RB, Smith RA, Schwarz GE (2000) Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico. Nature 403:758–761
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mangone M, Manoharan AP, Thierry-Mieg D, et al (2010) The landscape of C. elegans 3’UTRs. Science 329:432–435

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malhotra G (2010) Chemical Process Simplification. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gupta DK, Sandalio LM (eds) (2012) Metal Toxicity in Plants: Perception, Signaling and Remediation, First. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Li H, Yang W, Xu Y, et al (2016) A Real Time Wireless Interactive Multimedia System. In: Li F, Shim K, Zheng K, Liu G (eds) Web Technologies and Applications: 18th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2016, Suzhou, China, September 23-25, 2016. Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Brain Disease.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) There’s Going To Be A Rare “Strawberry Moon” Tonight. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Transportation Infrastructure: Estimated Funding Under the Transportation Empowerment Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morton WG (2015) Isolating mycorrhizal fungi from Spiranthes vernalis for subsequent in vitro seed germination. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) As Injury Carousel Spins, the Mets Keep Reeling. New York Times SP4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Curran 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Curran 2008; Brown and Zarin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brown and Zarin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Mangone et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Brain Disease
AbbreviationMetab. Brain Dis.
ISSN (print)0885-7490
ISSN (online)1573-7365
Clinical Neurology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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