How to format your references using the Metabolic Brain Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Brain Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Redfield RJ (2011) Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science 332:1149; author reply 1149
A journal article with 2 authors
Britt RD, Oyala PH (2014) Biochemistry. One step closer to O₂. Science 345:736
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith J, Van Dyken JD, Zee PC (2010) A generalization of Hamilton’s rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation. Science 328:1700–1703
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Salger T, Kling S, Hecking T, et al (2009) Directed transport of atoms in a Hamiltonian quantum ratchet. Science 326:1241–1243

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirsh SJ (2009) Media and Youth. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Amato G, Connor R, Falchi F, Gennaro C (eds) (2015) Similarity Search and Applications: 8th International Conference, SISAP 2015, Glasgow, UK, October 12-14, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Fox RI, Fox CM (2012) Providing Information to Referring Physicians and Patients. In: Fox RI, Fox CM (eds) Sjögren’s Syndrome: Practical Guidelines to Diagnosis and Therapy. Springer, New York, NY, pp 35–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Brain Disease.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Gluten-Free Foods are no Healthier Than Regular Foods, Study Finds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Digital Television Transition: Preliminary Information on Initial Consumer Education Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahl-Kovell DW (2014) Reimagining red power: Native American community, activism, and academics in postwar America. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Milestone for BMI: More Than $1 Billion in Music Royalties. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Redfield 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Redfield 2011; Britt and Oyala 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Britt and Oyala 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Salger et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Brain Disease
AbbreviationMetab. Brain Dis.
ISSN (print)0885-7490
ISSN (online)1573-7365
Clinical Neurology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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