How to format your references using the Metabolic Brain Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Brain Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Storz JF (2010) Evolution. Genes for high altitudes. Science 329:40–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas GL, Thorne RE (2001) Night-time predation by Steller sea lions. Nature 411:1013
A journal article with 3 authors
Solter LF, Kyei-Poku GK, Johny S (2013) Comment on “Invasive harlequin ladybird carries biological weapons against native competitors.” Science 341:1342
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li X, Zhang G, Sun B, et al (2013) Stimulated leaf dark respiration in tomato in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere. Sci Rep 3:3433

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, et al (2008) A Cochrane Pocketbook: Pregnancy and Childbirth. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Petzold A (ed) (2016) Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Applications, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Tile M (2005) Fractures of the Proximal Humerus. In: Tile M (ed) The Rationale of Operative Fracture Care. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Brain Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Time-lapse images of the Earth as seen from the ISS. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Gas Pipeline Safety: Guidance and More Information Needed before Using Risk-Based Reassessment Intervals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards G (2010) Effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments: Focus on the high school level. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman J (2015) Focus in Subway Shooting Is on Whether Deadly Force Was Justified. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Storz 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Thomas and Thorne 2001; Storz 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomas and Thorne 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Brain Disease
AbbreviationMetab. Brain Dis.
ISSN (print)0885-7490
ISSN (online)1573-7365
Clinical Neurology
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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