How to format your references using the Medicine, Conflict and Survival citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Conflict and Survival. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turney, J. 2001. “Strings and Things.” Nature 410 (6831): 873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto, Kenji, and Keiji Tanaka. 2004. “Neuroscience. Conflict and Cognitive Control.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5660): 969–970.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavrentovich, Oleg D., Israel Lazo, and Oleg P. Pishnyak. 2010. “Nonlinear Electrophoresis of Dielectric and Metal Spheres in a Nematic Liquid Crystal.” Nature 467 (7318): 947–950.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bershtein, Shimon, Michal Segal, Roy Bekerman, Nobuhiko Tokuriki, and Dan S. Tawfik. 2006. “Robustness-Epistasis Link Shapes the Fitness Landscape of a Randomly Drifting Protein.” Nature 444 (7121): 929–932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, Eric, and Scott Noppe-Brandon. 2011. Imagination First. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Kerr, Heather, David Lemmings, and Robert Phiddian, eds. 2016. Passions, Sympathy and Print Culture: Public Opinion and Emotional Authenticity in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Palgrave Studies in the History of Emotions. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Aral, Ali, Vijay Gupta, and Ravi P. Agarwal. 2013. “Q-Summation–Integral Operators.” In Applications of Q-Calculus in Operator Theory, edited by Vijay Gupta and Ravi P. Agarwal, 145–194. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Conflict and Survival.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Dengue Virus Is Zika’s Most Powerful Weapon – And Sometimes Its Greatest Weakness.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Aviation Safety: System Safety Approach Needs Further Integration into FAA’s Oversight of Airlines. GAO-05-726. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thiss, Patrick J. 2009. “Effects of Dedicated Academic Support Services on the Persistence Rates of California Community College Student-Athletes.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Galchen, Rivka. 2015. “Nobody’s Fool.” New York Times, September 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turney 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Turney 2001; Matsumoto and Tanaka 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsumoto and Tanaka 2004)
  • Three authors: (Lavrentovich, Lazo, and Pishnyak 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bershtein et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Conflict and Survival
AbbreviationMed. Confl. Surviv.
ISSN (print)1362-3699
ISSN (online)1743-9396
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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