How to format your references using the Medicine, Conflict and Survival citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Conflict and Survival. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2004. “A Delicate Balance.” Nature 429 (6989): 323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Narayan, Ramesh, and Eliot Quataert. 2005. “Black Hole Accretion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5706): 77–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bakshy, Eytan, Solomon Messing, and Lada A. Adamic. 2015. “Political Science. Exposure to Ideologically Diverse News and Opinion on Facebook.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6239): 1130–1132.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xu, Wang, Tae-Hyeong Kim, Duanting Zhai, Jun Cheng Er, Liyun Zhang, Anup Atul Kale, Bikram Keshari Agrawalla, Yoon-Kyoung Cho, and Young-Tae Chang. 2013. “Make Caffeine Visible: A Fluorescent Caffeine ‘Traffic Light’ Detector.” Scientific Reports 3: 2255.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nagashima, Yorikiyo. 2013. Elementary Particle Physics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Koss Md Fcrp Leopold. 2012. Koss’s Cytology of the Urinary Tract with Histopathologic Correlations. Edited by Hoda Md Fiac Rana. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ganter, Bernhard, and Sergei Obiedkov. 2016. “Exploring Data Tables.” In Conceptual Exploration, edited by Sergei Obiedkov, 187–236. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Conflict and Survival.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Japanese Government Panel Finds ‘Breakthrough’ Stem Cell Study Used Falsified Data.” IFLScience. IFLScience.‘breakthrough’-stem-cell-study-used-falsified/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Information Technology: OMB Needs to Improve Its Guidance on IT Investments. GAO-11-826. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schluter, Kevin Thomas. 2013. “Hearing Words without Structure: Subliminal Speech Priming and the Organization of the Moroccan Arabic Lexicon.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Megalogenis, George. 2017. “Australia’s Leftward Turn.” New York Times, May 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Narayan and Quataert 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Narayan and Quataert 2005)
  • Three authors: (Bakshy, Messing, and Adamic 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Conflict and Survival
AbbreviationMed. Confl. Surviv.
ISSN (print)1362-3699
ISSN (online)1743-9396
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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