How to format your references using the Medicine, Conflict and Survival citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Conflict and Survival. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, Michael M. 2013. “Digital Learning: Look, Then Leap.” Nature 499 (7458): 275–277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitch, W. Tecumseh, and Marc D. Hauser. 2004. “Computational Constraints on Syntactic Processing in a Nonhuman Primate.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5656): 377–380.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rideout, W. M., 3rd, K. Eggan, and R. Jaenisch. 2001. “Nuclear Cloning and Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Genome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5532): 1093–1098.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fennimore, A. M., T. D. Yuzvinsky, Wei-Qiang Han, M. S. Fuhrer, J. Cumings, and A. Zettl. 2003. “Rotational Actuators Based on Carbon Nanotubes.” Nature 424 (6947): 408–410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loughran, Maire. 2010. Auditing for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Träger, Frank, ed. 2012. Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kadmiel, Mahita, Kimberly L. Fritz-Six, and Kathleen M. Caron. 2012. “Understanding RAMPs Through Genetically Engineered Mouse Models.” In RAMPs, edited by William S. Spielman and Narayanan Parameswaran, 49–60. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Conflict and Survival.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Scientists Solve Decades-Old Lunar Mystery.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Small Business Innovation Research: Information on Awards Made by NIH and DoD in Fiscal Years 2001 through 2004. GAO-06-565. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, Cornelia A. 2014. “Teacher and Student Perceptions of Bullying at Leclaire School.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2016. “The Listings: Film Series.” New York Times, December 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Crow 2013; Fitch and Hauser 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fitch and Hauser 2004)
  • Three authors: (Rideout, Eggan, and Jaenisch 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fennimore et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Conflict and Survival
AbbreviationMed. Confl. Surviv.
ISSN (print)1362-3699
ISSN (online)1743-9396
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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