How to format your references using the Medicine, Conflict and Survival citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Conflict and Survival. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lincoln, T. 2000. “Cardiac Arrest Can Be Less of a Gamble.” Nature 408 (6810): 302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koo, Hyung-Jun, and Orlin D. Velev. 2013. “Regenerable Photovoltaic Devices with a Hydrogel-Embedded Microvascular Network.” Scientific Reports 3: 2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKinnon, Laura, Erica Nol, and Cédric Juillet. 2013. “Arctic-Nesting Birds Find Physiological Relief in the Face of Trophic Constraints.” Scientific Reports 3: 1816.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Weber, Tino, Jens Herbig, Michael Mark, Hanns-Christoph Nägerl, and Rudolf Grimm. 2003. “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Cesium.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5604): 232–235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Volpe, Medi Ann. 2013. Rethinking Christian Identity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Meyer, Bertrand, Jerzy R. Nawrocki, and Bartosz Walter, eds. 2008. Balancing Agility and Formalism in Software Engineering: Second IFIP TC 2 Central and East European Conference on Software Engineering Techniques, CEE-SET 2007, Poznan, Poland, October 10-12, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 5082. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Luu, Alice, Brian C. Foster, Kristina L. McIntyre, Teresa W. Tam, and John T. Arnason. 2011. “Pharmacogenetics in Potential Herb–Drug Interactions: Effects of Ginseng on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 Allelic Variants.” In The Biological Activity of Phytochemicals, edited by David R. Gang, 59–65. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Conflict and Survival.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Scientists Find Traces Of Enormous Solar Storms That Once Hit The Earth.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Repayment of Overpaid Cash-in-Lieu-of-Commodities Funds to Louisiana Youth Talent Promotion, Inc. CED-82-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Di Giacomo, Francis Anthony. 2010. “Education amidst Transition: The Case of Romania.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2016. “Review: ‘Dying to Know’ How to Turn on, Tune in, Drop Out.” New York Times, August 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lincoln 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lincoln 2000; Koo and Velev 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koo and Velev 2013)
  • Three authors: (McKinnon, Nol, and Juillet 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Weber et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Conflict and Survival
AbbreviationMed. Confl. Surviv.
ISSN (print)1362-3699
ISSN (online)1743-9396
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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