How to format your references using the Medicine, Conflict and Survival citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Conflict and Survival. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Apkarian, V. A. 2006. “Chemistry. A Pixellated Window on Chemistry in Solids.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5794): 1747–1748.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liang, Bryan A., and Tim Mackey. 2010. “Health Care Policy. Reforming off-Label Promotion to Enhance Orphan Disease Treatment.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5963): 273–274.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, Andrew, Alan E. S. Kemp, and Jennifer Pike. 2009. “Late Cretaceous Seasonal Ocean Variability from the Arctic.” Nature 460 (7252): 254–258.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Crowther, T. W., M. B. Machmuller, J. C. Carey, S. D. Allison, J. M. Blair, S. D. Bridgham, A. J. Burton, et al. 2018. “Author Correction: Crowther et al. Reply.” Nature 560 (7716): E1.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massotte, Pierre, and Patrick Corsi. 2017. Smart Decisions in Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
León, Raúl, María Jesús Muñoz-Torres, and Jose M. Moneva, eds. 2016. Modeling and Simulation in Engineering, Economics and Management: International Conference, MS 2016, Teruel, Spain, July 4-5, 2016, Proceedings. Vol. 254. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lengstorf, Jason, and Phil Leggetter. 2013. “Determining the App’s Functionality and Structure.” In Realtime Web Apps: With HTML5 WebSocket, PHP, and JQuery, edited by Phil Leggetter, 65–86. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Conflict and Survival.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “You Can Now Vote To Officially Name Exoplanets For The First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Airline Scheduling: Airline Practices in Establishing and Maintaining Connecting Times. RCED-88-207. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norton, Daniel A. 2013. “O’Connor’s Agent Casual Theory of Free Will: An Evaluation.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Sheppard Was Always About The Word.” New York Times, July 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Apkarian 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Apkarian 2006; Liang and Mackey 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liang and Mackey 2010)
  • Three authors: (Davies, Kemp, and Pike 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Crowther et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Conflict and Survival
AbbreviationMed. Confl. Surviv.
ISSN (print)1362-3699
ISSN (online)1743-9396
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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