How to format your references using the Medicine, Conflict and Survival citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Conflict and Survival. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R. A. 2000. “SAVING KYOTO: A Well-Intentioned Cleanup Gets Mixed Reviews.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5493): 921.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsieh, Jenny, and Jay W. Schneider. 2013. “Neuroscience. Neural Stem Cells, Excited.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6127): 1534–1535.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grbic, Anthony, Lei Jiang, and Roberto Merlin. 2008. “Near-Field Plates: Subdiffraction Focusing with Patterned Surfaces.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5875): 511–513.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liutkus, Antoine, David Martina, Sébastien Popoff, Gilles Chardon, Ori Katz, Geoffroy Lerosey, Sylvain Gigan, Laurent Daudet, and Igor Carron. 2014. “Imaging with Nature: Compressive Imaging Using a Multiply Scattering Medium.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman, Martin T. 2013. Faces of Fraud. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Suhir, E., Y. C. Lee, and C. P. Wong, eds. 2007. Micro- and Opto-Electronic Materials and Structures: Physics, Mechanics, Design, Reliability, Packaging. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Rathjen, Michael. 2006. “Models of Intuitionistic Set Theories over Partial Combinatory Algebras.” In Theory and Applications of Models of Computation: Third International Conference, TAMC 2006, Beijing, China, May 15-20, 2006. Proceedings, edited by Jin-Yi Cai, S. Barry Cooper, and Angsheng Li, 68–78. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Conflict and Survival.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Iowa Democratic Party Becomes First In US To Back Legalizing All Drugs.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Security: DHS Has Made Progress in Securing the Commercial Aviation System, but Key Challenges Remain. GAO-08-139T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mani, Vidya. 2011. “Empirical Study of Link between Operations and Financial Performance for Retailers.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A. L., and Benjamin Mueller. 2016. “A Shooting, the Hospital and Then, Months Later, a Homicide.” New York Times, May 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr 2000; Hsieh and Schneider 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hsieh and Schneider 2013)
  • Three authors: (Grbic, Jiang, and Merlin 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liutkus et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Conflict and Survival
AbbreviationMed. Confl. Surviv.
ISSN (print)1362-3699
ISSN (online)1743-9396
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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