How to format your references using the Medical Principles and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Principles and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Goode J. Viticulture: Fruity with a hint of drought. Nature. 2012 Dec;492(7429):351–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Nahrendorf M, Swirski FK. Immunology. Neutrophil-macrophage communication in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Science. 2015 Jul;349(6245):237–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Kinoshita T, Wenger T, Weiss DS. A quantum Newton’s cradle. Nature. 2006 Apr;440(7086):900–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Ji Q, Luo Z-X, Zhang X, Yuan C-X, Xu L. Evolutionary development of the middle ear in Mesozoic therian mammals. Science. 2009 Oct;326(5950):278–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Pease G. Optimize Your Greatest Asset-Your People. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1
Fadare O, editor. Precancerous Lesions of the Gynecologic Tract: Diagnostic and Molecular Genetic Pathology. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Kida M. Role of EUS on Preoperative Staging of Gastric Cancer for ESD. In: Fukami N, editor. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: Principles and Practice. New York, NY: Springer; 2015; pp 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Principles and Practice.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Meet Butterfly, A Rare Sheep-Goat Hybrid [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/meet-butterfly-rare-sheep-goat-hybrid/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research Grants: Compensation Paid to Graduate Students at the University of California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Goshin LS. Behavior Problems and Competence in Preschoolers Who Spent Their First One to Eighteen Months in a Prison Nursery Program. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Crow K. My Son the Bureaucrat, My Dad the Gadfly. New York Times. 2002 Jul;143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Principles and Practice
AbbreviationMed. Princ. Pract.
ISSN (print)1011-7571
ISSN (online)1423-0151
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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