How to format your references using the Medical Principles and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Principles and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dzenis Y. Material science. Spinning continuous fibers for nanotechnology. Science. 2004 Jun;304(5679):1917–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Znamenskiy P, Zador AM. Corticostriatal neurons in auditory cortex drive decisions during auditory discrimination. Nature. 2013 May;497(7450):482–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Isabel G, Pascual A, Preat T. Exclusive consolidated memory phases in Drosophila. Science. 2004 May;304(5673):1024–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao W, Sun Y, Balsam W, Lu H, Liu L, Chen J, et al. Hf-Nd isotopic variability in mineral dust from Chinese and Mongolian deserts: implications for sources and dispersal. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul;4:5837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xiong K. Resource Optimization and Security for Cloud Services. Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Mastorakis N, Mladenov V, Kontargyri VT, editors. Proceedings of the European Computing Conference: Volume 2. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Knaster S, Malik W, Dalrymple M. Composition. In: Malik W, Dalrymple M, editors. Learn Objective-C on the Mac: For iOS and OS X. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012; pp 67–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Principles and Practice.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 10,000-Year-Old Stone Tools Unearthed In Washington State [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Indian Affairs: Further Actions Needed to Improve Oversight and Accountability for School Safety Inspections. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huff JA. Interactions of glyphosate and dicamba in controlling key weed species. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Sharapova Rising Ladder Toward Major Appearances. New York Times. 2017 May;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Principles and Practice
AbbreviationMed. Princ. Pract.
ISSN (print)1011-7571
ISSN (online)1423-0151
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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