How to format your references using the Medical Principles and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Principles and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nielsen J: BIOENGINEERING. Yeast cell factories on the horizon. Science 2015;349:1050–1051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman DK, Banfield JF: Geomicrobiology: how molecular-scale interactions underpin biogeochemical systems. Science 2002;296:1071–1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verhagen JH, Herfst S, Fouchier RAM: Infectious disease. How a virus travels the world. Science 2015;347:616–617.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bleul CC, Corbeaux T, Reuter A, Fisch P, Mönting JS, Boehm T: Formation of a functional thymus initiated by a postnatal epithelial progenitor cell. Nature 2006;441:992–996.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szeman I, O’Brien S: Popular Culture. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Taguchi T, Iwanaka T, Okamatsu T (eds): Operative General Surgery in Neonates and Infants. Tokyo, Springer Japan, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Salati E, Dourojeanni M, Mundim A, Sampaio G, Lovejoy T: The Brazilian Amazon; in Hilty JA, Chester CC, Cross MS (eds): Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action. Washington, DC, Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, 2012, pp 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Principles and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E: Scientists Use Lasers To Regrow Teeth From Stem Cells. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Research: Super Collider--National Security Benefits, Similar Projects, and Cost. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh EF: The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified Delphi study approach 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Benanav M: A Way of Life, Fading Away. New York Times 2017;TR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Principles and Practice
AbbreviationMed. Princ. Pract.
ISSN (print)1011-7571
ISSN (online)1423-0151
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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