How to format your references using the Medical Epigenetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Epigenetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holz RW. Cell biology. Dynamin flexibility drives fission. Science. 2013 Mar;339(6126):1392–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wachsman ED, Lee KT. Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells. Science. 2011 Nov;334(6058):935–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richards-Kortum R, Gray LV, Oden M. IBI* series winner. Engaging undergraduates in global health technology innovation. Science. 2012 Apr;336(6080):430–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sliogeryte K, Thorpe SD, Lee DA, Botto L, Knight MM. Stem cell differentiation increases membrane-actin adhesion regulating cell blebability, migration and mechanics. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec;4:7307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higman BW. How Food Made History. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Duistermaat JJ. Distributions: Theory and Applications. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Sapaty PS. The World as Distributed Brain with Spatial Grasp Paradigm. In: Chen L, Kapoor S, Bhatia R, editors. Intelligent Systems for Science and Information: Extended and Selected Results from the Science and Information Conference 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014; pp 65–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Epigenetics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Teenage Girl May Have Developed Hepatitis From Green Tea Bought Online [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. West Coast Ports: Better Supply Chain Information Could Improve DOT’s Freight Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma Y. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Digital Security Provider Raises $100 Million to Tackle Booming Market. New York Times. 2017 May;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Epigenetics
AbbreviationMed. Epigenet.
ISSN (online)1664-5561

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