How to format your references using the Medical Epigenetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Epigenetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kintisch E. The science of schmoozing. Science. 2015 Feb;347(6223):798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirey SB, Richardson SH. Start of the Wilson cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle. Science. 2011 Jul;333(6041):434–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huey RB, Losos JB, Moritz C. Ecology. Are lizards toast? Science. 2010 May;328(5980):832–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nidhin M, Vedhanayagam M, Sangeetha S, Kiran MS, Nazeer SS, Jayasree RS, et al. Fluorescent nanonetworks: a novel bioalley for collagen scaffolds and tissue engineering. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:5968.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuus M. Geopolitics and Expertise. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Carachi R, Grosfeld JL, editors. The Surgery of Childhood Tumors. 3rd ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Condrey RE, Hoffman PE, Evers DE. The Last Naturally Active Delta Complexes of the Mississippi River (LNDM): Discovery and Implications. In: Day JW, Kemp GP, Freeman AM, Muth DP, editors. Perspectives on the Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: The Once and Future Delta. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014; pp 33–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Epigenetics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Slowdown Of Brain’s Waste Removal System Could Drive Alzheimer’s [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Mar


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Freight Transportation: A Comparison of the Costs of Road, Rail, and Waterways Freight Shipments That Are Not Passed on to Consumers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bontrager JG. Characterization and Applications for A Polymerized DiaCEST Contrast Agent. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. With Emphasis on Safety, Playgrounds Aren’t for All. New York Times. 2005 Oct;14LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Epigenetics
AbbreviationMed. Epigenet.
ISSN (online)1664-5561

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