How to format your references using the Medical Epigenetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Epigenetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware P. Progress from a fragile start. Nature. 2000 Jan;403(6768):466.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cuffey KM, Marshall SJ. Substantial contribution to sea-level rise during the last interglacial from the Greenland ice sheet. Nature. 2000 Apr;404(6778):591–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang H, Ma Z, Liu J-F. Equilibrium spin current in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep;4:6464.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wend S, Dal Bosco C, Kämpf MM, Ren F, Palme K, Weber W, et al. A quantitative ratiometric sensor for time-resolved analysis of auxin dynamics. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenzel J. CIO Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Fehlman WL. Mobile Robot Navigation with Intelligent Infrared Image Interpretation. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Allen TC. Lung Cancer Stem Cells. In: Cagle PT, Allen TC, Beasley MB, Chirieac LR, Dacic S, Borczuk AC, et al., editors. Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer. New York, NY: Springer; 2012; pp 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Epigenetics.

Blog post
Davis J. Orangutan “Kiss Squeaks” Could Give Insight Into Evolution Of Human Language [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Feb [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail: Better Data and Communication of Uncertainties Can Help Decision Makers Understand Benefits and Trade-offs of Programs and Policies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nolan SA. Ecopoetry and ecocentrism: The poetics of Wallace Stevens and William Carlos Williams. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Supreme Court Hears Plea for Help From Puerto Rico. New York Times. 2016 Mar;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Epigenetics
AbbreviationMed. Epigenet.
ISSN (online)1664-5561

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