How to format your references using the Materials Today Bio citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Bio. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.D. Franson, Physics. Pairs rule quantum interference, Science. 329 (2010) 396–397.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.A. Melbourne, A. Hastings, Highly variable spread rates in replicated biological invasions: fundamental limits to predictability, Science. 325 (2009) 1536–1539.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Logoteta, G. Fiori, G. Iannaccone, Graphene-based lateral heterostructure transistors exhibit better intrinsic performance than graphene-based vertical transistors as post-CMOS devices, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6607.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-J. Yan, J.-T. Sun, Y.-Z. You, D.-C. Wu, C.-Y. Hong, Growing hyperbranched polymers using natural sunlight, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.C.J. Luo, Y. Guo, Vibro-Impact Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
D. Li, Y. Chen, eds., Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture VI: 6th IFIP WG 5.14 International Conference, CCTA 2012, Zhangjiajie, China, October 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Z. Liu, T. Lu, S. Parthasarathy, H. Hao, C.K. Sen, Role of Reactive Oxygen Species Formation from Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein in Bone Marrow Stem Cells, in: M.A. Hayat (Ed.), Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, Volume 8: Therapeutic Applications in Disease and Injury, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Bio.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Liberia Announces New Ebola Death Since Country declared Free of the Disease, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Gas Pipeline Safety: Views on Proposed Legislation to Reauthorize Pipeline Safety Provisions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.M. Arendse, A textual Caribbean: Voices of the multitude in Junot Díaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, At Hopper’s Home, Legally This Time, New York Times. (2013) NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Bio
ISSN (print)2590-0064

Other styles