How to format your references using the Materials Today Bio citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Bio. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.V. Ross, Comment on “On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects” II, Science. 311 (2006) 1100; author reply 1100.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Anderson, T. Moore, The economics of information security, Science. 314 (2006) 610–613.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.W. Palm, R.K. Rosenstein, R. Medzhitov, Allergic host defences, Nature. 484 (2012) 465–472.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Liu, X. Cao, J. Yang, X.-Q. Gong, X. Shi, Dendrimer-mediated hydrothermal synthesis of ultrathin gold nanowires, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.A. Schwartz, M.G. Carew, T. Maksimenko, Micro Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
A. Rane, J.A. Cadeddu, M.M. Desai, I.S. Gill, eds., Scar-Less Surgery: NOTES, Transumbilical, and Others, Springer, London, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D.E. Lyons, The Rational Continuum of Human Imitation, in: J.A. Pineda (Ed.), Mirror Neuron Systems: The Role of Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2009: pp. 77–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Bio.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Watch SpaceX’s Barge Landing In This Breathtaking 360 Video, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Japan and Australia, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.S. Peters, Bread and Washoku: Unveiling Japanese Identity Through the Necessity of Bread Baking, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Halsey Reaches the Top Of the Billboard Chart, New York Times. (2017) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Bio
ISSN (print)2590-0064

Other styles