How to format your references using the Materials Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNutt MK. Geophysics. Another nail in the plume coffin? Science. 2006;313:1394–1395.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dauphas N, Pourmand A. Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo. Nature. 2011;473:489–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dwyer G, Dushoff J, Yee SH. The combined effects of pathogens and predators on insect outbreaks. Nature. 2004;430:341–345.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee J-S, Parasoglou P, Xia D, et al. Uniform magnetization transfer in chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riches J. Galatians Through the Centuries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Mulero Á, editor. Theory and Simulation of Hard-Sphere Fluids and Related Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Quadros WR, Vyas V, Brewer M, et al. A Computational Framework for Generating Sizing Function in Assembly Meshing. In: Hanks BW, editor. Proceedings of the 14th International Meshing Roundtable. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Research Letters.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. France Joins The Hyperloop Race By Investing In American Company. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Raised by Proposal to Replace the Airline Ticket Tax. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996. Report No.: RCED-97-23. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Priddy JD-J. As Tufa to Sapphire: Gendering the Roles of Medieval Women in Combat [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L. Can a City Grow Quickly And Stay Simple? New York Times. 2005 Nov 27;119.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Research Letters
AbbreviationMater. Res. Lett.
ISSN (online)2166-3831

Other styles