How to format your references using the Materials Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carrero-Martínez FA. Education. Rethink summer student research. Science. 2011;334:313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowe T, Frank LR. The disappearing third dimension. Science. 2011;331:712–714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paggi M, Pohrt R, Popov VL. Partial-slip frictional response of rough surfaces. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5178.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ito Y, Nakanomyo I, Motose H, et al. Dodeca-CLE peptides as suppressors of plant stem cell differentiation. Science. 2006;313:842–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen WR, Friedman EA. Labor and Delivery Care. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Baglieri D, Metallo C, Rossignoli C, et al., editors. Information Systems, Management, Organization and Control: Smart Practices and Effects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Barnat J, Bauch P, Brim L. Checking Sanity of Software Requirements. In: Eleftherakis G, Hinchey M, Holcombe M, editors. Software Engineering and Formal Methods: 10th International Conference, SEFM 2012, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 1-5, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Research Letters.

Blog post
Hale T. See Inside A Hyperloop Pod For The First Time. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: IRS’ Efforts to Improve Taxpayer Correspondence. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990. Report No.: IMTEC-90-26. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimizu K. The Procurement System of the Japanese Space Agency: Present Challenges, Future Promise [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Will Hear Liability Cases With Federal-State Disparity at Issue. New York Times. 2008 Jan 19;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Research Letters
AbbreviationMater. Res. Lett.
ISSN (online)2166-3831

Other styles