How to format your references using the Marine Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charo, R.A., 2015. SCIENCE AND GOVERNMENT. Yellow lights for emerging technologies. Science 349, 384–385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quellmalz, E.S., Pellegrino, J.W., 2009. Technology and testing. Science 323, 75–79.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mei, L., Chen, Y., Ma, J., 2014. Gas sensing of SnO2 nanocrystals revisited: developing ultra-sensitive sensors for detecting the H2S leakage of biogas. Sci. Rep. 4, 6028.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, H., Lu, C., Tieu, A.K., Godbole, A., Su, L., Sun, Y., Liu, M., Tang, D., Kong, C., 2013. Fabrication of ultra-thin nanostructured bimetallic foils by Accumulative Roll Bonding and Asymmetric Rolling. Sci. Rep. 3, 2373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald, H., Robert D., G., 2006. Longitudinal Data Analysis: Hedeker/Longitudinal, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mehta, J.L., Dhalla, N.S. (Eds.), 2013. Biochemical Basis and Therapeutic Implications of Angiogenesis, Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Weidner, N., O’Brien, K.E., Wynne, K.T., 2016. Social Media Use: Antecedents and Outcomes of Sharing, in: Landers, R.N., Schmidt, G.B. (Eds.), Social Media in Employee Selection and Recruitment: Theory, Practice, and Current Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 79–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Geology.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. 8 Science-Backed Ways To Appear More Attractive [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Administration of the Office of Education’s Student Financial Aid Program (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Templeton, T.H., 2017. The Impact of Emergent Information and Communication Technology on Peacebuilding (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2016. The Ghost in the Machine May Be Your Soul. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Charo, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Charo, 2015; Quellmalz and Pellegrino, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quellmalz and Pellegrino, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Geology
AbbreviationMar. Geol.
ISSN (print)0025-3227
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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