How to format your references using the Marine Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martin, K., 2015. Vernon B. Mountcastle (1918-2015). Nature 518, 304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armakolas, A., Klar, A.J.S., 2006. Cell type regulates selective segregation of mouse chromosome 7 DNA strands in mitosis. Science 311, 1146–1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seiffert, E.R., Simons, E.L., Attia, Y., 2003. Fossil evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos. Nature 422, 421–424.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, Y., Yao, J., Yu, J., Wei, Q., Cao, X., 2014. The association between abnormal microRNA-10b expression and cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 7498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolo, D., 2016. Interactions on Digital Tablets in the Context of 3D Geometry Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hayat, S., Ahmad, A. (Eds.), 2011. Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Busnel, P., Giroux, S., 2010. Security, Privacy, and Dependability in Smart Homes: A Pattern Catalog Approach, in: Lee, Y., Bien, Z.Z., Mokhtari, M., Kim, J.T., Park, M., Kim, J., Lee, H., Khalil, I. (Eds.), Aging Friendly Technology for Health and Independence: 8th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2010, Seoul, Korea, June 22-24, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 24–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Geology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Mexican Volcano Puts On Breathtaking Lightning Show [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Office of Personnel Management: Agency Needs to Improve Outcome Measures to Demonstrate the Value of Its Innovation Lab (No. GAO-14-306). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swenson, M.D., 2012. Second generation Latinos and the perceived barriers to college enrollment (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2009. Amid Celebrations And the Cheers, Cashman Reflects. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Martin, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Armakolas and Klar, 2006; Martin, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armakolas and Klar, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Geology
AbbreviationMar. Geol.
ISSN (print)0025-3227
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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