How to format your references using the Marine Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huybers, P., 2006. Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing. Science 313, 508–511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Catlow, R., Fisher, A., 2011. Marshall Stoneham (1940-2011). Nature 471, 306.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hiraga, T., Anderson, I.M., Kohlstedt, D.L., 2004. Grain boundaries as reservoirs of incompatible elements in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 427, 699–703.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grom, G.F., Lockwood, D.J., McCaffrey, J.P., Labbe, H.J., Fauchet, P.M., White, B., Jr, Diener, J., Kovalev, D., Koch, F., Tsybeskov, L., 2000. Ordering and self-organization in nanocrystalline silicon. Nature 407, 358–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham, L., 2010. Complying with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wang, Q., Cheng, Y., Liu, N.C. (Eds.), 2013. Building World-Class Universities: Different Approaches to a Shared Goal, Global Perspectives on Higher Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Kheng, L.K., Minai, M.S., 2016. The Network Characteristic of Chinese SMEs in Malaysia and Their Performance, in: Mohd Sidek, N.Z., Ali, S.M., Ismail, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the ASEAN Entrepreneurship Conference 2014. Springer, Singapore, pp. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Geology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Earth’s Atmosphere Was Once Much Thinner Than We Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Women and Minority Aerospace Industry Profile, 1979-1986 (No. T-HRD-90-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunt, E., 2010. The saxophone works of Karlheinz Stockhausen (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Yankees and Red Sox Make September Meaningful. New York Times B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huybers, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Catlow and Fisher, 2011; Huybers, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Catlow and Fisher, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Grom et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Geology
AbbreviationMar. Geol.
ISSN (print)0025-3227
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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