How to format your references using the Machine Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2003). Social scientists call for abolition of dishonesty committee. Nature, 421(6924), 681.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domkin, V., & Chabes, A. (2014). Phosphines are ribonucleotide reductase reductants that act via C-terminal cysteines similar to thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. Scientific reports, 4, 5539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Albert, R., Jeong, H., & Barabasi, A. L. (2000). Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature, 406(6794), 378–382.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Turner, M., Golovko, V. B., Vaughan, O. P. H., Abdulkin, P., Berenguer-Murcia, A., Tikhov, M. S., et al. (2008). Selective oxidation with dioxygen by gold nanoparticle catalysts derived from 55-atom clusters. Nature, 454(7207), 981–983.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morana, J. (2013). Sustainable Supply Chain Management. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chakraborti, S., & Dhalla, N. S. (Eds.). (2013). Proteases in Health and Disease (Vol. 7). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yee, N. S. (2013). Toward the Goal of Personalized Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer by Targeting the Molecular Phenotype. In W. S. El-Deiry (Ed.), Impact of Genetic Targets on Cancer Therapy (pp. 91–143). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Learning.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, May 8). This Map Shows What White Europeans Associate With Race – And It Makes For Uncomfortable Reading. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Use of Department of Education Title III Grant Funds by the International Institute of the Americas of World University (No. HRD-84-20). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Egan, G. C. (2015). Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2013, November 21). His Runway Has a Backbeat. New York Times, p. E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2003; Domkin and Chabes 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domkin and Chabes 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Turner et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Learning
AbbreviationMach. Learn.
ISSN (print)0885-6125
ISSN (online)1573-0565
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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