How to format your references using the Machine Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kyriacou, C. P. (2009). Physiology. Unraveling traveling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5948), 1629–1630.
A journal article with 2 authors
Betts, J. R., & Atkinson, R. C. (2012). Education. Better research needed on the impact of charter schools. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6065), 171–172.
A journal article with 3 authors
Olff, H., Ritchie, M. E., & Prins, H. H. T. (2002). Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature, 415(6874), 901–904.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sudarsan, N., Hammond, M. C., Block, K. F., Welz, R., Barrick, J. E., Roth, A., & Breaker, R. R. (2006). Tandem riboswitch architectures exhibit complex gene control functions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5797), 300–304.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mead, J. M., & Gruneberg, S. (2013). Programme Procurement in Construction. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Harper, R. (Ed.). (2011). The Connected Home: The Future of Domestic Life. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuzmanić, I., & Vujović, I. (2015). Parameters Influencing Reliability and Availability of the System. In I. Vujović (Ed.), Reliability and Availability of Quality Control Based on Wavelet Computer Vision (pp. 15–16). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Learning.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 29). Huge Trial Shows Early HIV Treatment Dramatically Improves Patient Outcome. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Information Technology: VA and DOD Are Making Progress in Sharing Medical Information, but Remain Far from Having Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records (No. GAO-07-1108T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Austin, J. H. (2015). Performing the past: Two pageant traditions in Nauvoo, Illinois (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M. (2010, October 30). Detroit Reins In an Annual Halloween Revelry. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kyriacou 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Betts and Atkinson 2012; Kyriacou 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Betts and Atkinson 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Sudarsan et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Learning
AbbreviationMach. Learn.
ISSN (print)0885-6125
ISSN (online)1573-0565
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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