How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aanen DK. Developmental Biology. How a long-lived fungus keeps mutations in check. Science. 2014;346:922–923.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolfe MS, Selkoe DJ. Biochemistry. Intramembrane proteases--mixing oil and water. Science. 2002;296:2156–2157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang B, Xu S, Wu L. Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms. Nature. 2012;489:E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hung C-M, Chang C-C, Lin C-W, et al. GADD45γ induces G2/M arrest in human pharynx and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by cucurbitacin E. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6454.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG. Funding Atlas 2012. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Constable RL, Silva A, editors. Logic and Program Semantics: Essays Dedicated to Dexter Kozen on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Dorrestijn S. History, Philosophy, and Actuality of the Utopian View of Technology: On Pierre Musso’s Critique of Network Ideology. In: Garcia JL, editor. Pierre Musso and the Network Society: From Saint-Simonianism to the Internet. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 103–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Climate Change Might Cost European Cities $40bn A Year By 2100. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: Management Attention Needed for Future Investment Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994. Report No.: T-RCED-94-195. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheatley BA. Leadership styles of healthcare executives: Comparisons of transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant styles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Trying to Make Douglass Circle A Gateway, Not a Roadblock. New York Times. 2003 Apr 20;146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst.
ISSN (print)0267-8292
ISSN (online)1366-5855
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles