How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dominissini D. Genomics and Proteomics. Roadmap to the epitranscriptome. Science. 2014;346:1192.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carter NJ, Cross RA. Mechanics of the kinesin step. Nature. 2005;435:308–312.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sachs JP, Anderson RF, Lehman SJ. Glacial surface temperatures of the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Science. 2001;293:2077–2079.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guo D-Y, Shan C-X, Qu S-N, et al. Highly sensitive ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated from ZnO quantum dots/carbon nanodots hybrid films. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:7469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ellis H, Lawson A. Anatomy for Anaesthetists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Vilanova R, Visioli A, editors. PID Control in the Third Millennium: Lessons Learned and New Approaches. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Klopfleisch R. Mammary Tumors. In: Klopfleisch R, editor. Veterinary Oncology: A Short Textbook. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 99–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals.

Blog post
Andrew E. Can A Virtual Reality Game Make You Forget You’re In Pain? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reorganization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977. Report No.: FPCD-77-65. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weaver PQ. Relationships between leadership practices of founders and successors and economic performance of select family businesses [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Markoff J. A Would-Be Father of A.I. New York Times. 2016 Nov 28;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst.
ISSN (print)0267-8292
ISSN (online)1366-5855
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles