How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schroeder T. Imaging stem-cell-driven regeneration in mammals. Nature. 2008;453:345–351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaine AS, Lyon BE. Adaptive plasticity in female mate choice dampens sexual selection on male ornaments in the lark bunting. Science. 2008;319:459–462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seoane J, Le H-V, Massagué J. Myc suppression of the p21(Cip1) Cdk inhibitor influences the outcome of the p53 response to DNA damage. Nature. 2002;419:729–734.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith SB, Qu H-Q, Taleb N, et al. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010;463:775–780.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutscher Beton- und Bautechnik-Ver. Beispiele zur Bemessung nach Eurocode 2. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
Sandkuhl K, Seigerroth U, Stirna J, editors. The Practice of Enterprise Modeling: 5th IFIP WG 8.1 Working Conference, PoEM 2012, Rostock, Germany, November 7-8, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Baran ET, Reis RL. Biomimetic Approach to Drug Delivery and Optimization of Nanocarrier Systems. In: Mozafari MR, editor. Nanocarrier Technologies: Frontiers of Nanotherapy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 75–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals.

Blog post
Carpineti A. More Than Thirty Unreported Sources Of Toxic Air Discovered From Space [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: DOD’s Acquisition Policies and Guidance Need to Incorporate Additional Best Practices and Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004. Report No.: GAO-04-722. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seger JL. The Occupy Movement: Signs of Cultural Shifts in Group Processes Shaped by Place [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. Where Do All the Disgraced C.E.O.s Go? New York Times. 2017 Oct 13;BU12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst.
ISSN (print)0267-8292
ISSN (online)1366-5855
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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