How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Lackner KS. Comment on “efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2” (III). Science. 2003;301:1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Ortíz-Barrientos D, Noor MAF. Evidence for a one-allele assortative mating locus. Science. 2005;310:1467.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Sakuda A, Hayashi A, Tatsumisago M. Sulfide solid electrolyte with favorable mechanical property for all-solid-state lithium battery. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2261.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
Amaral Zettler LA, Gómez F, Zettler E, et al. Microbiology: eukaryotic diversity in Spain’s River of Fire. Nature. 2002;417:137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Fernandez-Maloigne C, Robert-Inacio F, Macaire L. Digital Color. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Deml B, Stock P, Bruder R, et al., editors. Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of GfA 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Gardiner SM. Socrates on the Impossibility of a Reasonable Politics. In: Anagnostopoulos G, Miller FD Jr, editors. Reason and Analysis in Ancient Greek Philosophy: Essays in Honor of David Keyt. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 67–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. To Seem Bigger, Dwarf Mongooses Do Handstands to Leave Higher Marks on Trees [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/seem-bigger-dwarf-mongooses-do-handstands-make-higher-marks-trees/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994. Report No.: B-256497. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Ryan JI. Analysis of the role of the Jackson Prairie in prehistoric/protohistoric settlement patterns using survey data from the Bienville National Forest [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Koblin J. Fox Sidelines Legal Analyst After Wiretap Allegation. New York Times. 2017 Mar 21;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst.
ISSN (print)0267-8292
ISSN (online)1366-5855
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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