How to format your references using the Lingua citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scheeres, D.J., 2014. Solar system: Sandcastles in space. Nature 512, 139–140.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan, K.D., Johnson, M.A., 2010. Chemistry. Downsizing the hydrated electron’s lair. Science 329, 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sia, G.M., Clem, R.L., Huganir, R.L., 2013. The human language-associated gene SRPX2 regulates synapse formation and vocalization in mice. Science 342, 987–991.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Banavar, J.R., Damuth, J., Maritan, A., Rinaldo, A., 2003. Physiology: Allometric cascades. Nature 421, 713–4; discussion 714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, N.P., 2010. Process Engineering for a Small Planet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wang, L., Shafiq, B. (Eds.), 2013. Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXVII: 27th Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Conference, DBSec 2013, Newark, NJ, USA, July 15-17, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Balawi, S., Khalaf, K., Hitt, G.W., 2016. Leveraging Pedagogical Innovations for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education in the Middle East Context, in: Abdulwahed, M., Hasna, M.O., Froyd, J.E. (Eds.), Advances in Engineering Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Current Status, and Future Insights. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 59–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Drug-Resistant Malaria Detected In India [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. DHS Research and Development: Science and Technology Directorate’s Test and Evaluation and Reorganization Efforts (No. GAO-12-239T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, M.J., 2010. Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Montague, J., 2017. A Storied Name in Soccer Faces an Uncertain Future. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scheeres, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Jordan and Johnson, 2010; Scheeres, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jordan and Johnson, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Banavar et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua
ISSN (print)0024-3841
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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