How to format your references using the Lingua citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radman, M., 2001. Fidelity and infidelity. Nature 413, 115.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duan, H., Sun, C., 2014. Swarm intelligence inspired shills and the evolution of cooperation. Sci. Rep. 4, 5210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khashan, S.A., Alazzam, A., Furlani, E.P., 2014. Computational analysis of enhanced magnetic bioseparation in microfluidic systems with flow-invasive magnetic elements. Sci. Rep. 4, 5299.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fleming, J.G., Lin, S.Y., El-Kady, I., Biswas, R., Ho, K.M., 2002. All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap. Nature 417, 52–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salleh, S., Zomaya, A.Y., Olariu, S., Sanugi, B., 2005. Numerical Simulations and Case Studies Using Visual C++.Net. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Droz, J.-P., Carme, B., Couppié, P., Nacher, M., Thiéblemont, C. (Eds.), 2015. Tropical Hemato-Oncology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tarasyuk, A., Pereverzeva, I., Troubitsyna, E., Latvala, T., 2015. The Formal Derivation of Mode Logic for Autonomous Satellite Flight Formation, in: Koornneef, F., van Gulijk, C. (Eds.), Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 34th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2015, Delft, The Netherlands, September 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 29–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Cat Parasite Modified Into An Effective Cancer Vaccine [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. GSA Lease Prospectuses Provide a Reasonable Basis for the Congress To Approve Proposed Space Acquisitions (No. LCD-80-44). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fino, M., 2010. Fruit and vegetable intake and exercise practices of college students of color (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lovell, J., 2013. The World, Still Spinning. New York Times MM36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Radman, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Duan and Sun, 2014; Radman, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Duan and Sun, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Fleming et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua
ISSN (print)0024-3841
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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