How to format your references using the Lingua citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blau, H.M., 2002. A twist of fate. Nature 419, 437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greenleaf, W.J., Block, S.M., 2006. Single-molecule, motion-based DNA sequencing using RNA polymerase. Science 313, 801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gutiérrez, N.L., Hilborn, R., Defeo, O., 2011. Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 470, 386–389.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lipton, A.J., Johnson, M.A., Macdonald, T., Lieberman, M.W., Gozal, D., Gaston, B., 2001. S-nitrosothiols signal the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Nature 413, 171–174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemaire, M., 2014. Mechanics and Uncertainty. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Sinha, C.K., Davenport, M. (Eds.), 2010. Handbook of Pediatric Surgery. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Simon, R., 2006. The Financial Restructuring of Medium-Sized Companies, in: Blatz, M., Kraus, K.-J., Haghani, S. (Eds.), Corporate Restructuring: Finance in Times of Crisis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Discover 500 Million-Year-Old Fossilized Embryos [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program (No. GAO-08-1181T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maas, C.C., 2014. Emergency department utilization patterns in patients with diabetes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2008. A Cornucopia Of Produce. New York Times NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blau, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Blau, 2002; Greenleaf and Block, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greenleaf and Block, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Lipton et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua
ISSN (print)0024-3841
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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