How to format your references using the Law, Culture and the Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Law, Culture and the Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Kuratani,
‘Evolution. A muscular perspective on vertebrate evolution’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 341, 2013, 139–140.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Zilles and K. Amunts,
‘Neuroscience. Segregation and wiring in the brain’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 335, 2012, 1582–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Santiago, C. Henzler and M. Hothorn,
‘Molecular mechanism for plant steroid receptor activation by somatic embryogenesis co-receptor kinases’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 341, 2013, 889–892.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
L. Liu, S. Liu, X. Chen, C. Li, J. Ling, X. Liu, Y. Cai and L. Wang,
‘Switching molecular orientation of individual fullerene at room temperature’, Scientific Reports, 3, 2013, 3062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. A. French,
Chronicles Through the Centuries (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016).
An edited book
H. Hu, X. Shi, R. Stahlbock and S. Voß (eds.),
Computational Logistics: Third International Conference, ICCL 2012, Shanghai, China, September 24-26, 2012. Proceedings (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012), p. X, 217 p. 71 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Louberry, P. Roose and M. Dalmau,
‘Kalimucho: Contextual Deployment for QoS Management’, in P. Felber and R. Rouvoy (eds), Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 11th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2011, Reykjavik, Iceland, June 6-9, 2011. Proceedings (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011), pp. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Law, Culture and the Humanities.

Blog post
J. Fang,
Early Exposure To Pets, Dirt & Germs Are Good For Babies, IFLScience, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office,
Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1984).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Holvick-Norton,
Becoming Whole: The Process of Individuation for Women and Their Bodies (Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Kelly,
‘Unplugged’, New York Times, 2001, 723.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleLaw, Culture and the Humanities
ISSN (print)1743-8721
ISSN (online)1743-9752

Other styles