How to format your references using the Laser Physics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laser Physics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaessmann H 2009 Genetics. More than just a copy Science 325 958–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Begun D R and Ward C V 2005 Comment on “Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain” Science 308 203; author reply 203
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng J, Wang Y and Li C 2011 Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont Nature 472 181–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Schwartz J C, Zhang X, Fedorov A A, Nathenson S G and Almo S C 2001 Structural basis for co-stimulation by the human CTLA-4/B7-2 complex Nature 410 604–8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guinebretière R 2010 X-ray Diffraction by Polycrystalline Materials (London, UK: ISTE)
An edited book
Renandya W A and Widodo H P 2016 English Language Teaching Today: Linking Theory and Practice vol 5 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Silva C and Maglinte D 2015 The Role of CTE/Barium Enteroclysis in Crohn’s Disease Crohn’s Disease: Current Concepts ed A Rajesh and R Sinha (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 47–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laser Physics Letters.

Blog post
Davis J 2015 Scientists Have Discovered THIRTY FIVE New Bacterial Phyla IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994 Space Shuttle: Incomplete Data and Funding Approach Increase Cost Risk for Upgrade Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meier M R 2009 Exploring the effects of school calendars on student achievement Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Choi S 2013 Vanishing Acts New York Times BR25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLaser Physics Letters
AbbreviationLaser Phys. Lett.
ISSN (print)1612-2011
ISSN (online)1612-202X
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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