How to format your references using the Laser Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laser Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
VanNimwegen R 2007 Award-winning commitment Nature 447 610
A journal article with 2 authors
Smock R G and Gierasch L M 2009 Sending signals dynamically Science 324 198–203
A journal article with 3 authors
Milinski M, Semmann D and Krambeck H-J 2002 Reputation helps solve the “tragedy of the commons” Nature 415 424–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Smith D M, Cusack S, Colman A W, Folland C K, Harris G R and Murphy J M 2007 Improved surface temperature prediction for the coming decade from a global climate model Science 317 796–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson A K 2014 Fruit and Vegetables (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Castricano J and Simonsen R R 2016 Critical Perspectives on Veganism (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Gobbetti M and Di Cagno R 2013 The New Perspective Bacterial Communication in Foods SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition ed R Di Cagno (Boston, MA: Springer US) pp 71–5

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laser Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Scientists Generate Sperm Precursors From Skin Cells Of Infertile Men IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014 Data Transparency: Oversight Needed to Address Underreporting and Inconsistencies on Federal Award Website (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez K 2009 Personal narrative: The struggles and limitations of immigration experienced by an El Salvadorian refugee Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M and Deb S 2017 How Outrage Built Over a Shakespearean Depiction of Trump New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLaser Physics
AbbreviationLaser Phys.
ISSN (print)1054-660X
ISSN (online)1555-6611
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles