How to format your references using the Landscape Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). The fame game. Nature, 428(6981), 447.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, M. A., & Fee, M. S. (2008). Using temperature to analyse temporal dynamics in the songbird motor pathway. Nature, 456(7219), 189–194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripodi, M., Stepien, A. E., & Arber, S. (2011). Motor antagonism exposed by spatial segregation and timing of neurogenesis. Nature, 479(7371), 61–66.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yu, B., Yang, Z., Li, J., Minakhina, S., Yang, M., Padgett, R. W., … Chen, X. (2005). Methylation as a crucial step in plant microRNA biogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5711), 932–935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, D. W., & Woodward, J. L. (2010). Release. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Resende, R. R., & Ulrich, H. (Eds.). (2013). Trends in Stem Cell Proliferation and Cancer Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Park, H., & Sandefur, G. (2010). Educational Gaps Between Immigrant and Native Students in Europe: The Role of Grade. In J. Dronkers (Ed.), Quality and Inequality of Education: Cross-National Perspectives (pp. 113–136). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 7). What’s Going On With These Weird Ripply Clouds? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Chief Information Officers: Responsibilities and Information Technology Governance at Leading Private-Sector Companies (No. GAO-05-986). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bathon, J. M. (2008). Examining the characteristics of school leaders and of local schools where Indiana educational leadership preparation programs place their graduates (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alcindor, Y., & Shear, M. D. (2017, October 20). Video Disproves Story Kelly Told About Lawmaker. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Long & Fee, 2008; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long & Fee, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Tripodi, Stepien, & Arber, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yu et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Research
AbbreviationLandsc. Res.
ISSN (print)0142-6397
ISSN (online)1469-9710
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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