How to format your references using the Landscape Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chalker, D. L. (2014). Epigenetics: Keeping one’s sex. Nature, 509(7501), 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noudoost, B., & Moore, T. (2011). Control of visual cortical signals by prefrontal dopamine. Nature, 474(7351), 372–375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melcák, I., Hoelz, A., & Blobel, G. (2007). Structure of Nup58/45 suggests flexible nuclear pore diameter by intermolecular sliding. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5819), 1729–1732.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Steele, I. A., Mundell, C. G., Smith, R. J., Kobayashi, S., & Guidorzi, C. (2009). Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB 090102. Nature, 462(7274), 767–769.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das, J. C. (2017). Understanding Symmetrical Components for Power System Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chan, A. T., & Detering, E. (Eds.). (2013). Prospects for Chemoprevention of Colorectal Neoplasia: Emerging Role of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Vol. 191). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Duffau, H. (2006). Lessons from Brain Mapping in Surgery for Low-Grade Gliomas: Study of Cerebral Connectivity and Plasticity. In G.-Z. Yang, T. Jiang, D. Shen, L. Gu, & J. Yang (Eds.), Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality: Third International Workshop, Shanghai, China, August 17-18, 2006 Proceedings (pp. 25–35). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, March 5). Proposed Device Could Capture Unlimited Renewable Energy From Earth’s Infared Emissions. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Drug Control: Status of Plan to Use Federal Research and Development Facilities (NSIAD-90-7BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray, S. E. (2012). Impact of Training Intervention on Emotional Intelligence in Health Care Administrators and Physician Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, February 28). Before Series Debut, FX Says ‘Feud’ Will Endure. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chalker, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chalker, 2014; Noudoost & Moore, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noudoost & Moore, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Melcák et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Steele et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Research
AbbreviationLandsc. Res.
ISSN (print)0142-6397
ISSN (online)1469-9710
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles