How to format your references using the Landscape Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Choi, J. R. (2014). A novel method for analyzing complicated quantum behaviors of light waves in oscillating turbulent plasma. Scientific Reports, 4, 6880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Felzer, K. R., & Brodsky, E. E. (2006). Decay of aftershock density with distance indicates triggering by dynamic stress. Nature, 441(7094), 735–738.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heimpel, M., Aurnou, J., & Wicht, J. (2005). Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model. Nature, 438(7065), 193–196.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kawakatsu, H., Kumar, P., Takei, Y., Shinohara, M., Kanazawa, T., Araki, E., & Suyehiro, K. (2009). Seismic evidence for sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries of oceanic plates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5926), 499–502.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knopf, F. C. (2011). Modeling, Analysis and Optimization of Process and Energy Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Goethe, N. B., Beeley, P., & Rabouin, D. (Eds.). (2015). G.W. Leibniz, Interrelations between Mathematics and Philosophy (Vol. 41). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Thurner, S. (2011). A Simple General Model of Evolutionary Dynamics. In H. Meyer-Ortmanns & S. Thurner (Eds.), Principles of Evolution: From the Planck Epoch to Complex Multicellular Life (pp. 119–144). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Research.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, October 21). Hundreds Of Snow Leopards Killed Every Year In “Retaliation.” IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Telecommunications Market in Canada (GGD-94-193R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdioux, L. (2015). Predicting deception detection ability based on the concept of self-compassionate personality trait, openness personality structure, and agreeableness personality structure [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, December 14). Clinton’s Chief of Staff Ponders Undefined Post. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Choi, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Choi, 2014; Felzer & Brodsky, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Felzer & Brodsky, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Heimpel et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kawakatsu et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Research
AbbreviationLandsc. Res.
ISSN (print)0142-6397
ISSN (online)1469-9710
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles