How to format your references using the Landscape Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleinberg, J. M. (2000). Navigation in a small world. Nature, 406(6798), 845.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro, E., & Gil, B. (2008). Cell biology. RNA computing in a living cell. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5900), 387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Minto, C., Myers, R. A., & Blanchard, W. (2008). Survival variability and population density in fish populations. Nature, 452(7185), 344–347.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mandal, S. M., Migliolo, L., Silva, O. N., Fensterseifer, I. C. M., Faria-Junior, C., Dias, S. C., Basak, A., Hazra, T. K., & Franco, O. L. (2014). Controlling resistant bacteria with a novel class of β-lactamase inhibitor peptides: from rational design to in vivo analyses. Scientific Reports, 4, 6015.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson, P. (2006). Probabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hessayon, A. (Ed.). (2016). Jane Lead and her Transnational Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Smyrnakis, M., & Galla, T. (2015). Decentralized Optimisation of Resource Allocation in Disaster Management. In J. Preston, J. M. Binner, L. Branicki, T. Galla, N. Jones, J. King, M. Kolokitha, & M. Smyrnakis (Eds.), City Evacuations: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 89–106). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 2). Sensational Headlines About Dementia ‘Breakthroughs’ Are Damaging To Patients And Their Families. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Supercomputing in Industry (T-IMTEC-91-3). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray-Dulany, W. R. (2010). Base change for the Iwahori-Hecke algebra of GL2 [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shoumali, K., & Hubbard, B. (2017, April 8). U.S. Strike on Syria Fuels Uncertainty on the Ground. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleinberg, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kleinberg, 2000; Shapiro & Gil, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapiro & Gil, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Minto et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mandal et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Research
AbbreviationLandsc. Res.
ISSN (print)0142-6397
ISSN (online)1469-9710
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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