How to format your references using the Labour Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Labour Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wynne, C.D.L., 2004. Animal behaviour: fair refusal by capuchin monkeys. Nature 428, 140; discussion 140.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kostarelos, K., Novoselov, K.S., 2014. Materials science. Exploring the interface of graphene and biology. Science 344, 261–263.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, Y.-Y., Bagrow, J.P., Lehmann, S., 2010. Link communities reveal multiscale complexity in networks. Nature 466, 761–764.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Idnurm, A., Walton, F.J., Floyd, A., Heitman, J., 2008. Identification of the sex genes in an early diverged fungus. Nature 451, 193–196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewin, M.D., 2007. Better Software Project Management: A Primer for Success. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Blackwell, J., 2011. A Scientific Approach to Scientific Writing. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Foster, J.E., 2006. Poverty Indices, in: Janvry, A. de, Kanbur, R. (Eds.), Poverty, Inequality and Development: Essays in Honor of Erik Thorbecke. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 41–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Labour Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Moss Revived After 1500 Years of Permafrost [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Aviation Security: Progress Made in Systematic Planning to Guide Key Investment Decisions, but More Work Remains (No. GAO-07-448T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Polk, R.L., 2015. Examining students with disabilities in a linked learning pathway (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erlanger, S., Bennhold, K., Castle, S., 2017. Britain’s Rebuke Of Its Leadership Upends E.U. Exit. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wynne, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kostarelos and Novoselov, 2014; Wynne, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kostarelos and Novoselov, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Idnurm et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLabour Economics
AbbreviationLabour Econ.
ISSN (print)0927-5371
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Economics and Econometrics

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