How to format your references using the Labour Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Labour Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmittner, A., 2005. Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature 434, 628–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haga, S.B., Venter, J.C., 2003. Genetics. FDA races in wrong direction. Science 301, 466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abu-Raddad, L.J., Patnaik, P., Kublin, J.G., 2006. Dual infection with HIV and malaria fuels the spread of both diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Science 314, 1603–1606.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Natsume, R., Eitoku, M., Akai, Y., Sano, N., Horikoshi, M., Senda, T., 2007. Structure and function of the histone chaperone CIA/ASF1 complexed with histones H3 and H4. Nature 446, 338–341.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant, R., McShane, E.J., 1988. Differential and Integral Calculus. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Atweh, B., Graven, M., Secada, W., Valero, P. (Eds.), 2011. Mapping Equity and Quality in Mathematics Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kőrösi, A., Székely, B., Máté, M., 2011. Modeling the Content Popularity Evolution in Video-on-Demand Systems, in: Szabó, R., Zhu, H., Imre, S., Chaparadza, R. (Eds.), Access Networks: 5th International ICST Conference on Access Networks, AccessNets 2010 and First ICST International Workshop on Autonomic Networking and Self-Management in Access Networks, SELFMAGICNETS 2010, Budapest, Hungary, November 3-5, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 47–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Labour Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Watch SpaceX’s Falcon 9 Rocket Launch LIVE [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Needs of the U.S. Coast Guard in Developing an Effective Recreational Boating Safety Program (No. CED-77-11). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bakirci, A., 2010. Proteomic analysis of hepatocyte proteins in response to in vivo iron overload (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. Gallery of Horrors. New York Times BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmittner, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Haga and Venter, 2003; Schmittner, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haga and Venter, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Natsume et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLabour Economics
AbbreviationLabour Econ.
ISSN (print)0927-5371
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Economics and Econometrics

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