How to format your references using the Labour Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Labour Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lupas, A.N., 2014. Protein Design. What I cannot create, I do not understand. Science 346, 1455–1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Waal, F.B., Berger, M.L., 2000. Payment for labour in monkeys. Nature 404, 563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geremia, J.M., Stockton, J.K., Mabuchi, H., 2004. Real-time quantum feedback control of atomic spin-squeezing. Science 304, 270–273.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Banerjee, S., Meng, J., Das, S., Krishnan, A., Haworth, J., Charboneau, R., Zeng, Y., Ramakrishnan, S., Roy, S., 2013. Morphine induced exacerbation of sepsis is mediated by tempering endotoxin tolerance through modulation of miR-146a. Sci. Rep. 3, 1977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath, A.E., 2011. Darwinism and the Divine. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Ono, H., Kanazawa, M., Queiroz, R. de (Eds.), 2009. Logic, Language, Information and Computation: 16th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2009, Tokyo, Japan, June 21-24, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Greiner, A., Grüne, L., Semmler, W., 2010. Growth and Climate Change: Threshold and Multiple Equilibria, in: Crespo Cuaresma, J., Palokangas, T., Tarasyev, A. (Eds.), Dynamic Systems, Economic Growth, and the Environment, Dynamic Modeling and Econometrics in Economics and Finance. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Labour Economics.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. New Spider Species Named After Harry Potter Sorting Hat [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. CH-53E Helicopter (No. 093062). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffitte, L., 2012. A Comparison of Pull-Out and Co-Teaching Models on the Reading Performance of Third through Fifth Grade Elementary Students with a Diagnosed Specific Learning Disability in Reading (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2012. Soccer Is Welcome At Home of Sox. New York Times B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lupas, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (de Waal and Berger, 2000; Lupas, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Waal and Berger, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Banerjee et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLabour Economics
AbbreviationLabour Econ.
ISSN (print)0927-5371
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Economics and Econometrics

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