How to format your references using the Labour Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Labour Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blencowe, M., 2007. Applied physics. How to strum a nanobar. Science 317, 762–763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rodrigues, A.R., Tabin, C.J., 2013. Developmental biology. Deserts and waves in gene expression. Science 340, 1181–1182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Preis, T., Moat, H.S., Stanley, H.E., 2013. Quantifying trading behavior in financial markets using Google Trends. Sci. Rep. 3, 1684.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakanishi-Matsui, M., Zheng, Y.W., Sulciner, D.J., Weiss, E.J., Ludeman, M.J., Coughlin, S.R., 2000. PAR3 is a cofactor for PAR4 activation by thrombin. Nature 404, 609–613.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jeong, H., 2014. Architectures for Computer Vision. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Schwerzmann, M., Thomet, C., Moons, P. (Eds.), 2016. Congenital Heart Disease and Adolescence, Congenital Heart Disease in Adolescents and Adults. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Doolin, K., Roussaki, I., Roddy, M., Kalatzis, N., Papadopoulou, E., Taylor, N., Liampotis, N., McKitterick, D., Jennings, E., Kosmides, P., 2012. SOCIETIES: Where Pervasive Meets Social, in: Álvarez, F., Cleary, F., Daras, P., Domingue, J., Galis, A., Garcia, A., Gavras, A., Karnourskos, S., Krco, S., Li, M.-S., Lotz, V., Müller, H., Salvadori, E., Sassen, A.-M., Schaffers, H., Stiller, B., Tselentis, G., Turkama, P., Zahariadis, T. (Eds.), The Future Internet: Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 30–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Labour Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. By 2047, our Coldest Years May Be Warmer Than the Hottest in our Past [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Student Financial Aid Programs: Pell Grant Program Abuse (No. T-OSI-94-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fan, H.-T., 2012. Design of delta operator based decision feedback equalizer for high-speed backplane data communication (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Stolberg, S.G., 2017. Senator Goes From Trump Target to Cheerleader as Some in G.O.P. Bolt. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blencowe, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Blencowe, 2007; Rodrigues and Tabin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rodrigues and Tabin, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakanishi-Matsui et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLabour Economics
AbbreviationLabour Econ.
ISSN (print)0927-5371
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Economics and Econometrics

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