How to format your references using the Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science (ERIES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raymond, J. C. (2004) 'Astronomy. Imaging the Sun’s eruptions in three dimensions', Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 305, no. 5680, pp. 49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kamber, B. S. and Kramers, J. D. (2006) 'Geochemistry: how well can Pb isotopes date core formation?', Nature, vol. 444, no. 7115, pp. E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, M., Carman, C. V. and Springer, T. A. (2003) 'Bidirectional transmembrane signaling by cytoplasmic domain separation in integrins', Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 301, no. 5640, pp. 1720–1725.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Imai, H., Obara, K., Diamond, P. J., Omodaka, T. and Sasao, T. (2002) 'A collimated jet of molecular gas from a star on the asymptotic giant branch', Nature, vol. 417, no. 6891, pp. 829–831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hong, G. (2015) Causality in a Social World, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Somers, M. J. and Hayward, M. (ed.) (2012) Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential or a Riposte to Threatening Processes?, New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marle, F. and Vidal, L.-A. (2016) 'Assessing Vulnerability of Complex Projects', In L.-A. Vidal (Ed.), Managing Complex, High Risk Projects: A Guide to Basic and Advanced Project Management (pp. 119–144), London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, August 29) This Tiny Hamster With An Equally Tiny Cast Is All You Need To See Today, [Online], Available at: [30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Need for a Government-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information, Appendix IV (No. PAD-77-14A), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glazer, K. (2015) Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes (Doctoral dissertation), Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hofmann, P. and Leland, J. (2017, August 11) 'Urban Pastoral', New York Times, p. MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raymond, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kamber and Kramers, 2006; Raymond, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kamber and Kramers, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Kim, Carman and Springer, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Imai et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science
ISSN (print)2336-2375
ISSN (online)1803-1617

Other styles