How to format your references using the Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science (ERIES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Langenberg, H. (2002) 'Climate of care for a changing world', Nature, vol. 417, no. 6888, pp. 4–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brubaker, S. W. and Monack, D. M. (2015) 'IMMUNOLOGY. Microbial metabolite triggers antimicrobial defense', Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 348, no. 6240, pp. 1207–1208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumada, N., Muraki, K. and Hirayama, Y. (2006) 'Low-frequency spin dynamics in a canted antiferromagnet', Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 313, no. 5785, pp. 329–332.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
St Maurice, M., Reinhardt, L., Surinya, K. H., Attwood, P. V., Wallace, J. C., Cleland, W. W. and Rayment, I. (2007) 'Domain architecture of pyruvate carboxylase, a biotin-dependent multifunctional enzyme', Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 317, no. 5841, pp. 1076–1079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cazdyn, E. and Szeman, I. (2011) After Globalization, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Castillo, O., Melin, P. and Kacprzyk, J. (ed.) (2013) Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (Vol. 451), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeynalova, M. H., Rustamov, R. B. and Salahova, S. E. (2009) 'Advanced Space Technology for Oil Spill Detection', In P. Olla (Ed.), Space Technologies for the Benefit of Human Society and Earth (pp. 99–120), Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, December 2) Doctors Warn Of Drinking Too Much Water When Ill, [Online], Available at: [30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) General Aviation: Security Assessments at Selected Airports (No. GAO-11-298), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moro, J. M. (2017) School Improvement Grants at Work: A Study of Urban, Public New England Schools (Doctoral dissertation), Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, July 28) 'Five Americans Listed for Man Booker Prize', New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Langenberg, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brubaker and Monack, 2015; Langenberg, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brubaker and Monack, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Kumada, Muraki and Hirayama, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (St Maurice et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science
ISSN (print)2336-2375
ISSN (online)1803-1617

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