How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Ott, Chemistry. Ironing out hydrogen storage, Science. 333 (2011) 1714–1715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z. Toroczkai, K.E. Bassler, Network dynamics: jamming is limited in scale-free systems, Nature. 428 (2004) 716.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Marimuthu, J. Zhang, S. Linic, Tuning selectivity in propylene epoxidation by plasmon mediated photo-switching of Cu oxidation state, Science. 339 (2013) 1590–1593.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. David, A. Feldman, E. Mansfield, J. Lehman, G. Singh, Evaluating the thermal damage resistance of graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid composite coatings, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Rowlinson, A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
A. Schutz, Collected Papers V. Phenomenology and the Social Sciences, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Mogensen, F.A. Mühlschlegel, CO2 Sensing and Virulence of Candida albicans, in: A.A. Brakhage, P.F. Zipfel (Eds.), Human and Animal Relationships, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 83–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Elon Musk Wants To Send Humans To Mars As Early As 2024, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Access to Arts Education: Inclusion of Additional Questions in Education’s Planned Research Would Help Explain Why Instruction Time Has Decreased for Some Students, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Dunbar, Sideshow: An alluring dichotomy of illusion and humanity, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, As Puerto Rico Defaults, Eyes Turn to Washington, New York Times. (2016) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Commun. Image Represent.
ISSN (print)1047-3203
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

Other styles