How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.B. Smith, Paleontology. Making the best of a patchy fossil record, Science. 301 (2003) 321–322.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Nishimura, S. Somerville, Plant biology. Resisting attack, Science. 295 (2002) 2032–2033.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.F. Goncharov, V.V. Struzhkin, S.D. Jacobsen, Reduced radiative conductivity of low-spin (Mg,Fe)O in the lower mantle, Science. 312 (2006) 1205–1208.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.K. Eun, K.A. Guthrie, G. Zirpoli, V.K. Gadi, In situ breast cancer and microchimerism, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. O’Kelly, B. Ratitch, Clinical Trials with Missing Data, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
J.A. Ellis-Monaghan, Graphs on Surfaces: Dualities, Polynomials, and Knots, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
S.T. Selvan, K. Narayanan, Multifunctional Nanoparticles, in: K. Narayanan (Ed.), Introduction to Nanotheranostics, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 69–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation.

Blog post
C. Carpineti, Spectacular Footage Of Narwhals Reveals The True Purpose Of Their Tusks, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Vehicle Donations: Taxpayer Considerations When Donating Vehicles to Charities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.P. Eggleston, An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Alvarez, Pandemonium Followed Rumor of Second Airport Attacker, New York Times. (2017) A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Commun. Image Represent.
ISSN (print)1047-3203
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

Other styles