How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Campbell, Declaration of financial interests, Nature. 412 (2001) 751.
A journal article with 2 authors
N.J. Dudney, J. Li, Materials science. Using all energy in a battery, Science. 347 (2015) 131–132.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Ni, Q. Yan, Y. Yu, How much metagenomic sequencing is enough to achieve a given goal?, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1968.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Buhl, A. Erbe, J. Grebing, S. Wintz, J. Raabe, J. Fassbender, Lateral spin transfer torque induced magnetic switching at room temperature demonstrated by x-ray microscopy, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.A. Stocker, Analog VLSI Circuits for the Perception of Visual Motion, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
J.F. Martínez-Trinidad, J.A. Carrasco Ochoa, J. Kittler, eds., Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis and Applications: 11th Iberoamerican Congress in Pattern Recognition, CIARP 2006 Cancun, Mexico, November 14-17, 2006 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
H.M. Nguyen, D.S. Naidu, Optimal Power Conversion of Standalone Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using Fuzzy Adaptive Control, in: H.K. Kim, S.-I. Ao, M.A. Amouzegar, B.B. Rieger (Eds.), IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies: Special Issue of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2012, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation.

Blog post
E. Andrew, California’s Drought Likely The Worst In 1,200 Years, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Intermodal Transportation: DOT Could Take Further Actions to Address Intermodal Barriers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.S. Garishe, Protocol for file sharing in mobile ad hoc networks, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Cooper, A Toothy Strongman Gets a Role at the Met Opera, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Commun. Image Represent.
ISSN (print)1047-3203
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

Other styles