How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott, One for all--and all for one, Nature. 405 (2000) 728.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.A. Hogan, R. Kolter, Pseudomonas-Candida interactions: an ecological role for virulence factors, Science. 296 (2002) 2229–2232.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Amunts, O. Drory, N. Nelson, The structure of a plant photosystem I supercomplex at 3.4 A resolution, Nature. 447 (2007) 58–63.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.P. Johnson, H.J. Cleaves, J.P. Dworkin, D.P. Glavin, A. Lazcano, J.L. Bada, The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment, Science. 322 (2008) 404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Kapterev, Presentation Secrets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
D. Alpay, Slice Hyperholomorphic Schur Analysis, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Horn, A. Korsunova, Trends in EU Energy Policy 1995–2007, in: M. Järvelä, S. Juhola (Eds.), Energy, Policy, and the Environment: Modeling Sustainable Development for the North, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, We Could Be On The Brink Of Discovering Something Extraordinary At The Large Hadron Collider, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, A Judgmental Call: Measuring the Safety of the Airlines, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.M. Ball-Miles, The relationship between witnessing verbal marital conflict as a child and the behavioral anger responses in adulthood, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Russian Writer, Facing Charges, Warns Free Expression Is at Risk, New York Times. (2002) A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Commun. Image Represent.
ISSN (print)1047-3203
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology

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